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《法華經》修行法門與慧思法華三昧之修證與創立=Practice Ways of Lotus Sūtra and Hue-si's Practicing and Founding "Dharma Lotus Samādhi"
著者 林志欽 (著)=Lin, Chih-chin (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.20
出版年月日2012.12
ページ55 - 134
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者為真理大學宗教文化與組織管理學系副教授兼系主任。附錄:慧思一生實踐與證悟歷程之七種傳記對照表,頁129-134
キーワード《法華經》=Lotus Sūtra; 慧思=Hue-si; 法華三昧=Dharma Lotus Samādhi; 《法華經安樂行義》=Fahua-jinganlexingy; 四安樂行=Four Anlexing; 六根清淨=Six Roots of Senses being Purified; 修行法門=Practice Way
抄録  《法華經》是大乘佛教重要經典,對中國佛教有廣大之影響力,更是天台宗立宗之根本經典。法華三昧是創立天台宗最重要之祖師慧思與智顗修行證悟之最關鍵的法門。本文將《法華經》之六十項修行法門歸納為五大類作說明,並得出其以受持修行與弘揚《法華經》為主,六波羅蜜為輔,並說到空觀法門,但是並沒有直接說明法華三昧之意義與行法,也沒有講到天台宗所說的假觀、中道觀與一心三觀。其他相關的經典《法華三昧經》所說與《法華經》無關。《思惟略要法》雖依《法華經》講法華三昧,其法門重點與慧思所言不同,所以慧思乃是依據《法華經》與《觀普賢菩薩行法經》新開創其法華三昧法門。
  本文分析歸納了慧思實踐修行過之五種《法華經》法門,解析與詮釋慧思證得法華三昧之方法與境界,並製作了慧思一生實踐與證悟歷程之七種傳記對照表。進一步根據慧思之論著《法華經安樂行義》分析闡釋其法華三昧思想。慧思認為《法華經》是大乘頓覺,不歷次第,疾成佛道之法門,但是一切信受《法華經》者,即使是新學菩薩亦普遍皆可自修而證。筆者認為,《法華經》說到一切眾生憙見菩薩與妙莊嚴王於一生中得證三昧之事例,是慧思認為修《法華經》能疾成佛道之根據,亦是智顗言圓教觀能於一生證得初住位之所依。但所證三昧是否即是得佛神通,授記作佛,乃至一切種智與佛眼,則是慧思之說。
  慧思提出《法華經》有相行、無相行兩種主要行法。有相行以讀誦《法華經》為主,能證得六根清淨、三種陀羅尼。本文依《觀普賢菩薩行法經》詳細說明了其修證歷程。慧思認為得清淨眼根即是得佛眼,此行能具足五眼、三慧、一切佛法。筆者認為,依《法華經》妙莊嚴王之例,則有相行亦能究竟成就。慧思亦是三生誦《法華經》而親證法華三昧。無相行是「四安樂行」,主要為於一切行中觀一切法空而心常在定,是直觀六根本淨之佛性,能證三忍、無生法忍而頓疾成佛。但是其觀法仍是蕩相遣執之般若空觀,且非天台之一心三觀。然而筆者以為,無相行空觀法門要能成為頓疾成佛之法,乃需輔以有相行,二者並行而具足方可。總言之,經由本文之解析與查考論述,
可以更細密地了解慧思如何建立起天台宗最重要法門之一的法華三昧。
  本文最後將慧思之實踐證悟歷程與經典及其法華三昧說作比對,了解到慧思不僅均實踐了有相行與無相行,且諸多境界與成就足與經典相印證,成為實踐證得法華三昧之極佳典範。

Lotus Sūtra(《法華經》) is an important Mahāyāna sūtra. It influenced Chinese Buddhism widely. It is a fundamental sūtra of T’ien-t’ai Buddhism. “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” (法華三昧) was the key way of the practices of Hue-si (慧思) and Zhi-yi (智顗) who were the most important patriarchs of T’ien-t’ai sect. I classify sixty practice ways of Lotus Sūtra to be five classes and explain them. The main practice way of Lotus Sūtra is to practise and preach Lotus Sūtra itself. It mentioned “Contemplation of Emptiness” (空觀), but didn’t explain “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” directly, and didn’t mention “Contemplation of Illusory Phenomenon” (假觀), “Contemplation of Middle Way” (中道觀), “Threefold Contemplation in One Single Mind” (一心三觀) neither. Hue-si established “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” of T’ien-t’ai sect by himself, without consulting “Si-wei-lve-yao-fa”(《思惟略要法》).
I analyze and induce that Hue-si took five kinds of practise ways of Lotus Sūtra in this paper. I present and explain the ways and states of “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” made by Hue-si. I also make a comparison table of seven biographies of Hue-si. Furthermore, I interpret Huesi’s theory of “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” according to “Fahua-jinganlexingy”(《法華經安樂行義》). According to Hue-si’s thought, the practice way of “Lotus Sūtra” can accomplish the Buddha way directly and quickly. But it can be taken by anyone who believes and accepts Lotus Sūtra, even the new learners who can practise by themselves.
I deduce that the cases shown in Lotus Sūtra that “Everyone Likes to See Bodhisattva”( 一切眾生憙見菩薩) and “Miao-zhuang-yan king”(妙莊嚴王) got Samādhis in just a lifetime which are the basic thougat of Hue-si that the practice way of Lotus Sūtra can accomplish the Buddha way quickly and Zhi-yi declared that one could reach the stage of “First Settling”(初住位) by “Contemplation of Perfect-teaching”(圓教觀) in a lifetime. But it is Hue-si who declared that getting the Samādhis also meant to get Buddha’s miraculous abilities, being predicted to become a Buddha, getting all kinds of wisdom and Buddha-eyes.
Hue-si thought there were two kinds of practice ways “Having Form Practice”(有相行) and “Without Form Practice”(無相行) in Lotus Sūtra. The former is to read Lotus Sūtra and can get “Six Roots of Senses being Purified”(六根清淨) and three kinds of dhāraṇī. I explained it’s detailed procedures according to Guan-Pu-Xian-Bodhisattva Sūtra (觀普賢經). Hue-si thought this practice way could acquire “Five Eyes”, “Three Kinds of Wisdom” and all Buddha dharmas. I think that according to the case of “Miao-zhuang-yan king”, and “Having Form Practice” one can arrive the final achievement. Hue-si was an example of getting “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” by reading Lotus Sūtra during three lifetimes. “Without Form Practice” is “Four Anlexing” (四安樂行). Its major way is based on the thought of “tathāgata-garbha”(如來藏) and one can contemplate directly on “buddha nature” to accomplish the Buddha way quickly. But what it takes is the way of “Contemplation of Emptiness” instead of “T
目次一、前言 61
二、《法華經》之修行法門 62
三、《法華三昧經》與《思惟略要法》之法華三昧 73
四、慧思之法華三昧法門 75
(一)慧思之修行歷程 75
(二)慧思著作之法華三昧法門 85
1.有相行 91
2.無相行 100
(三)慧思之修行證悟與法華三昧說之印證 113
1.「有相行」之印證 113
2.「無相行」之印證 117
五、結論 119
附表 慧思一生實踐與證悟歷程之七種傳記對照表 129
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数429
作成日2014.01.28
更新日期2017.08.09



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