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智者大師後期著作之天台宗修行法門=Practice Ways of T'ien-t'ai Sect in Zhi-yi's Works of His Later Stage
著者 林志欽 (著)=Lin, Chih-chin (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.23
出版年月日2014.06
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者為真理大學宗教文化與組織管理學系副教授。
キーワード三觀=Threefold Contemplation; 四教=Four Teachings; 一心三觀=Threefold Contemplation in One Single Mind; 四種三昧=Four Forms of Samādhi; 修行法門=Practice Ways; 智顗=Zhi-yi; 天台宗=T’ien-t’ai Sect
抄録本文為接續〈智者大師前期著作之天台宗修行法門〉一文之後,繼續就智者大師後期現存的十三部著作,分析出其所說到的各種修行法門,以助於對天台宗法門的全盤掌握,並發掘天台教觀體系最具代表性的三觀與四教說,以及四種三昧之演進發展情況。研究所得,天台山隱棲時期的五部著作《覺意三昧》、《法界次第初門》、《小止觀》、《禪門口訣》、《證心論》都是以空觀為主要觀法。另外提到的各種禪法大都均包含在前期的著作《釋禪波羅蜜》中。到天台三大部則已建立完整的教觀體系。教門包括化儀四教與頓漸五時教,以及化法四教。觀門有化儀之三種止觀,以及化法之空、假、中三觀與一心三觀。教觀相應,四教有十六門觀,均以十法成乘。《法華玄義》又列出了四教的許多各種法門,並詳述別教與圓教之五行。《摩訶止觀》主要講四種三昧、二十五方便與三止三觀,詳盡闡釋了三觀與一心三觀、十法成乘。最晚年的《維摩經疏》確立以四教、三觀為主軸,完成純熟而清楚判然的教觀思想體系。《維摩經文疏》新增了圓教的「通相三觀」。在三觀之發展方面,智者大師天台山隱棲時期主要在詮釋空觀。《覺意三昧》只隱含,《小止觀》才講述到空、假、中三種觀法,但均是屬於別教的次第三觀之意。圓教觀代表的一心三觀只見於《法界次第初門》一書之序言中表露其發展意向,可見圓教觀法尚未發展成熟。到天台三大部則系統整備,三觀與一心三觀均詳盡闡釋。最晚年《維摩經疏》的《三觀義》確立三觀為最核心的修行法門,並作出清楚而判然的界定。可見三觀及一心三觀是經過長期逐漸發展而成,最後並新增了圓教通相三觀之法。四教的發展過程較三觀遲緩,天台山隱棲時期只有《法界次第初門》簡略提到四教之四諦理與藏教有「有、空」二門。最後與三觀同在天台三大部中完整呈現。也是在最晚年《維摩經疏》之《四教義》更精純判然地界說。四種三昧則是智者大師早期修行與講著的各種三昧與懺法,本皆止於空觀之說。《覺意三昧》開始有次第三觀之意。而《摩訶止觀》以四種三昧之分類統括為圓教行,進而詮釋至圓教一心三觀。最終於《四教義》定位為一心三觀之前方便加修輔助法門。

T’ien-t’ai Sect is a very important sect of Chinese Buddhism. Its theory was made by Zhi-yi(智顗). Zhi-yi provided many practice ways in his works. But these ways still have not being collected altogether now. In my another paper, I have gotten all practice ways in Zhi-yi’s five works of his earlier stage, and shown the developments of the most representative teachings “Threefold Contemplation”(三觀)and “Four Teachings”(四教)and “Four Forms of Samādhi”(四種三昧)during
Zhi-yi’s earlier stage. This paper continues to get all practice ways in Zhi-yi’s thirteen works of his later stage, and shows the developments of “Threefold Contemplation” and “Four Teachings”.All of the five works written by Zhi-yi during the period of time
dwelling at Tien-tai Mountain, Jue-yi Samādhi(《覺意三昧》), Fa-jie-cidi-chu-me(《法界次第初門》), Little Samādhi and Contemplation (《小止觀》), Shan-men-kou-jue(《禪門口訣》)and Zheng-xin-lun(《證心論》), their major practice way is “Contemplation of Emptiness”(空觀). Nearly all of the other practice ways they had mentioned appear in the work of Zhi-yi’s earlier stage Shi-chan-bo-luo-mi(《釋禪波羅蜜》). In “Three Authoritative Works of T’ien-t’ai Sect”(天台三大部), the complete system of teaching and practice was established. The part of teaching included “Four Teachings of Teaching Way”(化儀四教), “Five Periods of Teaching Time”(五時), and “Four Teachings of Teaching Way”(化儀四教). The other part of practice included “Three Kinds of Contemplation”(三種止觀), “Threefold Contemplation”(三觀)and “Threefold Contemplation in One Single Mind”(一心三觀). Teaching and practice corresponded to each other, so “Four Teachings”had sixteen gates of contemplation. Each of them had “Ten Stages of Practice Way to Succeed”(十法成乘). There were also many practice ways of each “Four Teachings” shown in The Deep Meaning of Lotus Sūtra(《法華玄義》). It also introduced “Five Practices”(五行)of “Separate-teaching”(別教)and “Perfect-teaching”(圓教). The major practice ways of Mo-ho-chih-kuan(《摩訶止觀》)were “Four Forms of Samādhi”, “Twenty Five Convenient Practice Ways”(二十五方便)and “Threefold Calming and Contemplation” ( 三 止 三 觀 ). Futher, it explained “Threefold Contemplation”, “Threefold Contemplation in One Single Mind” and “Ten Stages of Practice Way to Succeed” thoroughly. The Commentaries of Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa Sūtra(《維摩經疏》)showed a completely mature system of teaching and practice with “Four Teachings” and “Threefold Contemplation” to be its essences. Finally, there was a new practice way of “Perfect-teaching” being introduced in Wei-mo-jing-wen-shu(《維摩經文疏》), that was “Universal Form of Threefold Contemplation”(通相三觀). About the development of “Threefold Contemplation”, “Contemplation of Emptiness” was the major practice way in Zhi-yi’s works written during the period of time dwelling at Tien-tai Mountain. The work of Jue-yi Samādhi(《覺意三昧》) implied three kinds of contemplations,“Contemplation of Emptiness”(空觀), “Contemplation of Illusory Phenomenon”(假觀)and “Contemplation of Middle Way”(中道觀),
but not precisely. They were shown in the work of Little Samādhi and Contemplation(《 小止觀 》). But their meaning belonged to the “Separate-teaching”, not “Perfect-teachi
目次一、前言 28
二、《覺意三昧》之修行法門 30
三、《法界次第初門》之修行法門 39
四、《小止觀》之修行法門 42
五、《禪門口訣》與《證心論》之修行法門 48
六、《法華文句》之修行法門 49
七、《法華玄義》之修行法門 53
八、《摩訶止觀》之修行法門 64
九、《維摩經疏》之修行法門 73
十、《觀心論》之修行法門 77
十一、結論 79
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数406
作成日2014.08.28
更新日期2017.08.16



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