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日本唯識思想的展開 =The Development and Context of Consciousness-only Thought in Japan
著者 陳宗元 (著)=Chen, Tsung-yan (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.27
出版年月日2016.06
ページ79 - 106
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート蜷川祥美先生為岐阜聖徳學園大學宗教部長.短期大学部教授,於2015年12月受法鼓大學邀請於法鼓文理學院演講,末學有幸擔任其演講稿的翻譯與現場口譯,後經法鼓大學惠敏法師推薦本演講稿的學術價值,也表示希望此演講稿能在台灣出版以嘉惠台灣的佛教學術界。之後承蒙三寶加被與《圓光學報》慈悲收納,萬分感激之餘,特此致記。
キーワード《瑜伽師地論》=Yogācārabhūmi-śastra (Discourse on the Stages of Yogic Practice); 三一權實論爭=Sanichigonjitsu no shoron (controversy between triyāna and eka-yāna); 一乘和會=integration of eka-yana; 藏俊=Zoshun; 《法華玄贊文集》=Hokke Gensan Bunshuu (Collected Works of Praise to Lotus Sūtra)
抄録本講演主要是介紹日本佛教思想研究的面向。內容述及對於唯識思想的展開有很大關連的法相宗歷史,以及特別是與天台宗的論爭所發展出來法相宗教學思想的展開。
對於三乘一乘何者才是真理的爭論,平安時代末期的藏俊(公元1104-1180年),他撰寫了《法華玄贊文集》,痛批天台宗「一乘要決」的主張,認為天台宗太執著於唯一佛乘的教義。
之後,法相宗仲算與天台宗良源展開所謂「應和宗論」(譯者註:應和是日本(村上天皇:926-967)的年號,時代為公元961-964年)的爭論。對於《法華經》中的「無一不成佛」,良源解釋為:「眾生皆能成佛!」,但仲夏則詮釋為:「無的一是不能成佛!」
藏俊於《法華玄贊文集》中,強調《瑜伽師地論》是:「了義中的了義」。但天台宗則認為《解深密經》與《瑜伽師地論》是權教;《法華經》與《涅槃經》是傳授真理的佛經。受天台宗與華嚴宗等一乘佛教思想派的影響,《瑜伽師地論》一直都被認為是個權教。然而,藏俊試圖提出質疑,主張一乘佛教思想並沒有遵循最初來自印度的佛教教義。
天台宗提出「五時八教判」之說。藏俊則引用了最勝子(護法的弟子)的《瑜伽師地論釋》說,《瑜伽師地論》具備佛教的理事、文義、修行、證果等的經論,比起只強調三乘成佛的《法華經》與《涅槃經》,其概念涵蓋程度廣泛。因此,被認為定位應高於《法華經》與《涅槃經》。
藏俊也維護有無佛性者存在的主張。指出《法華經》從理論上解釋,是一乘思想;但從實際的面向去分析會發現,其實《法華經》認為「三乘、五性」才是真理,並提出「一乘和會」的理論。此三一權實論爭,依天台宗的源信而言,認為一乘是真實。而依法相宗的藏俊、貞慶等而言,一乘三乘都是真實。
最後,貞慶認為是「信」才是為得佛果資糧而積集實踐的根本。以大乘佛教的通規繼承重視信的立場,將它建立在法相宗的教學所説的十住位的最初發心住,以「信」為菩薩道,即將它定位於佛道初門,這可說是他解釋的特徵。

This lecture is mainly to introduce the dimension of Buddhist Thought study in Japan. The content relates to the history of Dharma Characteristics’ School, which highly connects to the development of Consciousness-only Thought, and especially the development of Dharma Characteristics’ teaching idea toward the controversy with Tiantai School.
For the controversy of which is true between tri-yāna and eka-yāna, Zoshun (1104-1180 A.D.) of the Heian period wrote Hokke Gensan Bunshuu (Collected Works of Praise to Lotus Sūtra) and severely criticized Tiantai School’s claim from Ichijo Yoketsu (Key of eka-yāna). Zoshun thought Tiantai School was too inflexible in the doctrine of taking eka-yāna as the one and only Buddha yāna (vehicle).
Later, Chuuzan of Dharma Characteristics’ School and Ryogen of Tiantai School started the Owa Shuron (Debate in the Owa era). In which Ryogen interpreted Lotus Sūtra’s “none will fail to become a Buddha” as “everyone can become a Buddha”, yet Chuuzan interpreted it as “having none of Buddha’s nature will fail to become a Buddha”.
In Zoshun’s Hokke Gensan Bunshuu, he emphasized Yogācārabhūmi- śastra (Discourse on the Stages of Yogic Practice) as the “ultimate teaching of all Buddha’s teaching”. However, the Tiantai School thought Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra (Sūtra of the Explanation of the Profound Secrets) and Yogācārabhūmi-śastra were expedient teachings; and that Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra (Lotus Sūtra) and Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Nirvāṇa Sūtra) are sutras of true teachings.
Under the influence of eka-yāna Buddhism such as Tiantai School and Huayan School, Yogācārabhūmi-śastra had been taken as expedient teaching. Nevertheless, Zoshun sought to raise his question that eka-yāna Buddhism did not follow Buddha’s teaching originally from India.
Tiantai School bourght up the doctrine of “Five Periods & Eight Teachings”; and comparatively Zoshun quoted (one of Dharmapala’s students) Jinaputra’s Commentary on Yogācārabhūmi-śastra. Since Yogācārabhūmi-śastra provides theses like principle & fact, textual meaning, practice and enlightment, it is positioned higher than Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra and Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvānā Sūtra for its wide concept comparing with Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra which only stressed on tri-yāna.
Zoshun also stood up for the view that there were people with none of Buddha nature. He pointed out that Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra followed eka-yāna in the theory, but held tri-yāna and pañca-gotrāṇi as the truth if one analyzes its actual practice. Therefore he proposed the theory of integration of eka-yāna.
In connection with this controversy between tri-yāna and eka-yāna (Sanichigonjitsu no shoron), Genshin of Tiantai School took eka-yāna as the truth, but Zoshun and Joukei of Dharma Characteristics’ School thought both of them were true.
In the end, Joukei thought “Faith” is the basic that leads to increase practice for enlightenment. From Mahāyāna’s ground that thought highly of Faith, discipline and heritage, he built his point on “abiding of awakening operation”, the first abiding of the Ten Abidings in Dharma Characteristics’ teaching. The feature of his
目次一、前言 84
二、唯識思想在日本的傳入與發展 84
三、在三一權實論中,唯識思想的發展 89
(一) 德一與最澄的爭辯 89
(二) 仲算與良源的爭論 90
(三) 藏俊與貞慶的主張 91
四、結論 101
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数312
作成日2016.07.06
更新日期2017.08.16



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