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從《諦閑大師語錄》中探索淨土思想與現代化的修持法=An Inquiry into Pure Land Thought and Modern Practice through Quotations of Master Di Xian
著者 釋正持 (著)=Shi, Zheng-chi (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.27
出版年月日2016.06
ページ155 - 196
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート本文初稿曾發表於「第一屆佛教義學」學術研討會,上海:佛教義學研究會主辦,2015年8月8日。
キーワード諦閑=Di Xian; 《語錄》=Quotations; 淨土=Pure Land; 持名念佛=Buddha recitation; 台淨融合=convergence of Pure Land and Tiantai
抄録諦閑是天台宗第四十三代祖師,被讚譽為民國中興天台教觀之祖師,其對於近代天台宗的主要貢獻,即是創辦天台僧伽教育-觀宗研究社,為近代開辦僧伽教育的先驅。《諦閑大師語錄》是諦閑所撰寫經論義疏類專著以外的其他文述之匯編,書首有寶靜所撰的〈諦公老法師別傳〉,正文分為十六大類,共收入各種文體的著述有395篇。
本文主要在探索諦閑之淨土思想的持名念佛法門,如何因應時代的需求,配合末法眾生的根機,所開設的一種方便、簡易、圓頓的修行法門,將分為三個部分來說明:首先,「淨土三資糧-信願持名」,乃是承襲智旭之說,於其《語錄》中一再地引用《彌陀要解》:「得生與否,全由信願之有無;品位高下,全由持名之深淺」。念佛人雖多,但決定生西者千萬人只是一、二人而已,究其病根,在於信欠真,願欠切,念佛欠一心。所以念佛法門別無奇特,只是深信、切願、力行為要。其次,「念佛方法的闡釋」,諦閑在《語錄》中的念佛方法甚多,有四種念佛法:觀想、觀像、稱名、實相。這四種念佛方法中,唯有《阿彌陀經》之信願持名念佛,尤為方便之方便,殊勝之殊勝,又分為事持、理持二種。念佛三昧法門,又分為三種:念自佛、念他佛、自他俱念佛,三種念佛法門中,以念他佛最為穩當。最後,「台淨融合」,諦閑將天台教觀運用於念佛法門上,而以念佛法門來收攝天台教觀,最後導歸西方淨土,可謂「教宗《法華》,行在彌陀」。值得現代人省思的是,過去數百年來中國漢傳佛教之淨土法門,強調如何修行才能往生西方的問題。換言之,即是注重「了生脫死」的問題。如此一來,修淨業之人,只注重念佛求生淨土,而忽略了修行福德的部分。如何補足福德行的部分,而以更寬廣的視野來看待淨土觀,這也是目前淨土行者所待努力的部分。

Di Xian is the 43rd founder of Tiantai and is praised as the one who led to resurgence of Tiantai Teaching and Meditation in Minguo era (the era after Qing dynasty). His main contribution for modern Tiantai school is to establish the Guanzong Research Society, a pioneer of modern Sangha education. Quotations of Master Di Xian is a collection of his writings besides his specialized commentaries. At the beginning of this book is master Bao Jing‟s A Supplementary Biography of Elder Master Di Xian; and the main text collects types of 395 writings classified in 16 sorts.
This research is to trace Di Xian‟s buddhānusmṛti (Buddha recitation) method of Pure Land thought. There are three parts of explanation for how this convenient, simple, complete and immediate method changed with the requirement of time and fit the basic religious capacity of all living things in the Dharma-ending Age. The starting part is a saying following by Ouyi Zhixu: The three provisions of attaining Pure Land are faith, aspiration and upholding recitation of Buddha‟s Name. The Quotations repeatedly cited Essential Annotation on the Amitābha Sūtra, “Whether or not one obtains rebirth in Pure Land depends completely on the presence or absence of faith and aspiration. Whether the grade of one‟s rebirth is high or low depends completely on the depth or shallowness of upholding recitation for Amitābha’s name.” Although there are many people who recite Buddha‟s Dharma, among these countless only one or two may be able to obtain rebirth in Pure Land; and the cause of it is that the faith is not certain enough, the aspiration not clear enough and not being wholehearted on the recitation of Amitābha’s name. Therefore practicing Buddha‟s Dharma is nothing special but mainly the deep faith, clear aspiration and diligent practice. Next part is the Interpretation of „Buddha recitation method‟, which listed in the Di Xian‟s Quotations as: contemplating the characteristics of Amitābha, contemplating the image of Amitābha, reciting the name of Amitābha, and concentrating upon the real marks of Amitābha and understanding what they really are. Among these four methods, only faith, aspiration and upholding recitation of Buddha‟s Name as described in Amitābha Sūtra is the most convenient and excellent method in phenomenal level and noumenal level. To attain the samādhi of Buddha recitation, there are three styles used while reciting: contemplating single-mindedly into the nature of everything, contemplating all qualities of Amitābha, and interacting limitlessly throughout one‟s mind, Amitābha and everything; and the contemplating all qualities of Amitābha is considered the most reliable style. The final part, “convergence of Pure Land and Tiantai”, explains how Di Xian adopted Tiantai Teaching and Meditation on Buddha recitation method, grouped Tiantai Teaching and Meditation through Buddha recitation method, and then led them back to Pure Land, it is so-called “Learning from Lotus Sūtra while practicing Amitābha’s method.”
What worth modern people to reflect is that the Pure Land method of Chinese Buddhism in the last hundreds of years stressed on how to obtain rebirth in Pure Land. In another word, they emphasize on ending birth and death in another world. So thos
目次一、前言 160
二、淨土三資糧-信願持名 165
(一) 往生淨土之首要在信願 165
(二) 一心持名念佛為生淨土之正行 171
三、念佛方法的闡釋 175
(一) 四種念佛法:觀想、觀像、稱名、實相 175
(二) 念佛三昧法門 181
四、台淨融合-以天台六即來念佛 185
(一) 理即佛 186
(二) 名字即佛 187
(三) 觀行即佛 187
(四) 相似即佛 188
(五) 分證即佛 189
(六) 究竟即佛 189
五、結論 191
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数529
作成日2016.07.06
更新日期2017.08.16



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