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日治初期臺灣總督府的宗教政策與日本佛教在臺發展:以真宗本願寺派為例=Taiwan Governor’s Religious Policy in the Early Japanese Colonial Period and the Expansion of Japanese Buddhism in Taiwan - Jodi Shinshu Hongwanji-ha as an Example
著者 張益碩 (著)=Jang, Yih-shuoh (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.31
出版年月日2018.06
ページ79 - 128
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者單位:佛光大學佛教學系博士生
キーワード宗教概念=religious concept; 神道=Shinto; 淨土真宗本願寺派=Jodo Shinshu hongwanji-ha; 神佛分離=separation of Buddhism and Shintoism; 布教=missionary work; 殖民地支配=colonial rule
抄録 有關日治時期(AD.1895-1945)臺灣總督府的宗教政策,蔡錦堂分為三個階段。從1895年至1914年為第一階段;從1915年
(西來庵事件發生之後)至1930年為第二段階;接著1931年(九一八事變)至1945年為第三段階。
根據蔡錦堂的觀點,臺灣於日本統治初期之階段,屬於宗教政策之未整備之時期,這三階段說亦被探討日治時期臺灣佛教史之分期時所繼承。例如闞正宗即將日治時期臺灣佛教之歷史脈絡分為:前期(AD.1895-1915):探索與結盟;中期(AD.1915-1931):合作與開展;後期(AD.1931-1945):皇化與改造等三階段;亦分別以西來庵事件及九一八事變為分水嶺;且第一階段在「無方針」的宗教政策下,殖民者與被殖民者彼此尚在摸索中。
歷來的研究論點認為第一階段較無具體的宗教政策,但本文認為有重新檢討的必要。理由在於歷來的研究較不從整體的視野,即整體的日本殖民地視野來檢討臺灣的宗教政策。由於臺灣已劃歸日本統治,因此有必要先梳理日本自明治維新以來,政府處理國內宗教問題時所遭遇到之問題。因為當時日本人是如何認識或處理自身之宗教或佛教的問題,也往往會影響作為「他者」的殖民地佛教之處理和政策。
因此本文首先爬梳日本明治維新以來國內宗教概念,及宗教政策的形成過程,特別是「神佛分離令」政策下之神道與淨土真宗本願寺派關係的複雜性。此複雜性亦會導致後來在處理殖民地臺灣的宗教問題時的侷限性。
其次,統治初期所進行之宗教調查與宗教相關法令之制定,讓臺灣原有之宗教以及日本內地傳來的佛教各宗派,有了法律的規範與定位。
但總督府對於日本佛教宗派(本文是淨土真宗)想要整合臺灣傳統佛教成日本內地的「本寺・末寺」的方式,持保留的態度,因為臺灣佛教之型態與日本不同。

Regarding to Taiwan governor’s religious policy during the Japanese Colonial period ( AD.1895-1945 ), Chin-tang Tsai divided it into three specific stages. The first stage was from 1895 to 1914. The Second stage was from 1915, the year right after Xi Lai An incident, to 1930. The last was from 1931, the year of Mukden incident, to 1945.
According to the view of Chin-tang Tsai, Taiwan religious policy was not ready and completed yet at the early Japanese colonial period. Chin-tang Tsai’s such three-stages theory was accepted by Religious Historians, who staged Taiwan Buddhist History under the Japanese Colonial period in common. For instance, Chin-tang Tsai and Cheng-tsung Kan also staged Taiwan Buddhist History under the Japanese Colonial period into three stages. The early stage (AD.1895-1915) was an Exploration and Alliance period. The intermediate stage (AD.1915-1931) was Cooperation and Development. The last stage (AD.1931-1945) was Naturalization and Transformation. Selia Temple Incident and Mukden Incident were also regarded as demarcation respectively. Because it was without specific direction of the religious policy at the early stage, both the colonizer and the colonized were under grope.
Although it showed no concreted religious policy at the early stage in general, we argued it is necessary to have a review. The reason for that was because of the used researches with deficiency in the overall view. It means a necessary to review the Taiwan religious policy under an overall Japanese colonial aspect. At that time Taiwan had been under Japanese colonial therefore we suggest to deal with internal religious problems which Japan government had faced in advance. We argue that how did Japan governments understand or handle internal religious or Buddhist problem, and would they affect its colonial government as well.
Accordingly, this article will firstly deal with Japan internal religious concept and its formation process of religious policy specially regarding to the complicated relation between Shinto and Jodo Shinshu hongwanji-ha under the policy of “the separation of Buddhism and Shintoism”. Such complication also contributed the limitation, while it handled the Taiwan colonial religious problems.
Secondly, processing religious surveys and drawing up religious laws during early colonial period had made a legal position and standard for future Taiwan religions and many Buddhist sects from Japan inland.
However, regarding to the problem which Japan Buddhist sect’s intentions to integrate local Taiwan Buddhist sects with Japan inland’s mode of “Root Temple-Terminal Temple”, Taiwan governors had hold a reservation on it due to the different pattern between Taiwan and Japan Buddhism.
目次中文摘要 79
英文摘要 81
一、前言 84
二、近代日本的宗教政策與日本佛教界的發展 88
(一) 近代日本宗教概念的形成與宗教政策 88
(二) 近代日本之宗教政策與殖民地臺灣 96
三、臺灣總督府之宗教政策與真宗本願寺派的在臺布教 99
(一) 關於殖民地初期臺灣宗教事務主管單位 100
(二) 殖民地當局的宗教政策與宗教領域的重組 102
1. 兒玉源太郎、後藤新平時期的宗教調查以及宗教政策 102
2. 「寺院教務所說教所建立廢合規則」等宗教法規之公佈 106
(三) 殖民地當局的宗教政策與真宗本願寺派 110
1. 關於「布教」之概念問題 110
2. 領臺初期之布教狀況 113
四、結論 120
參考文獻 122
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数32
作成日2018.11.16
更新日期2018.12.28



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