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從世尊對外道禪法的批判來探析「佛四禪」成立過程可能存在的內在理路=An exploratory study on how Buddhist four jhānas may be internally related during the formation process: From the aspect of how non-Buddhist meditation practices were criticized by the Buddha
著者 廖永賢 =Liao, Yung-hsien
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.33
出版年月日2019.06
ページ1 - 48
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート佛光大學佛教學系博士生
キーワード外道禪=non-Buddhist meditations; 四禪內在理路=internal structure of four jhānas; 捨善=forsaking good dharma; 捨念清淨=upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ
抄録  漢譯《阿含經》與巴利《尼柯耶》中,四禪禪法在佛教解脫成道上的重要性是眾所周知的。但是,學界對其源流仍有不同看法。有認為佛教的禪法思想不可能憑空而生,必然會受到存在於佛世前後的婆羅門或其他沙門學派思想影響,而有吸收改進。也有人從四禪在佛教解脫成道上的重要性,以及系統性的四禪禪法資料,並無出現在更早於佛教的其他外道文獻中,而將其視為是佛自創。儘管如此,有關它是如何形成、其中的內在理路又是為何如此的問題,卻鮮有學術上的深入探究。本文從世尊的外道經驗,以及其對外道禪法的批判此一角度,來嘗試解析佛四禪成立時,可能存在的內在理路。參酌了Walters (1999) 的兩種解經模式進行「以經解經」後,本文發現:佛對外道禪法批判的具體內容,幾乎皆有反映在佛四禪的禪支(jhāna factors)之中;若缺少了外道修行經驗,當時的喬達摩可能在禪觀方法上就無法突破;而這樣的突破反映在佛四禪的特色上,即是「不拒非欲非不善法之樂」,以及「正覺為目的」的悟道結晶上。亦即,接受喜樂作為助道資糧作用,使禪者身心更趨於沉穩平淨;但是,喜樂亦如彼岸船筏,不應執持方能彰顯正覺的目的,為最終的漏盡解脫提供條件。在這樣的脈絡下,本文亦提出「捨念清淨」此一巴利複合字,更適切的可能解釋方式,並指出其在第四禪時的禪觀操作意義。

The imperative of four jhānas system in Buddhist liberation is well documented in the Āgamas or Nikāyas. Its origination, however, remains disputed among scholars. Some held that Buddhist thoughts on mediation just could not be possibly generated from a vacuum, for it may have been susceptible to the thoughts of Brahmanism or other samaṇa traditions that existed before the time of the Buddha. Others, however, seeing its soteriological role in Buddhist liberation and no completed documentation of four jhānas system were uncovered among non-Buddhist literature that pre-dated the Buddha, have come to conclude the system to be the Buddha‟s initiation. Either way, no focal study seems to have been conducted investigating how the meditation system was initiated and why it is to be so. By raising the question of “how the Buddha may have criticized meditation techniques of the heretics that formed a part of his earlier practice”, this study intended to deconstruct or to restore the likely formation process of the Buddhist four jhānas. Results from employing two analytic modes by Walters (1999) indicated that the Buddha‟s critiques, later, were mostly reflected on the composed factors of the four jhānas. Without these heretical experiences, Gotama could not have made breakthrough in his contemplative practice back then. The breakthrough characterizing the four jhānas includes “not rejecting joy and happiness from nonsensuous and non-unwholesome dharmas sources” and “rightawakening is the aim”, which crystallized the Buddha‟s enlightenment from his heretical experiences. That is, the joy and happiness should be accepted as nutrients necessary to pacify the body and mind in the meditation process. In the end, however, they too should be forsaken just like “the raft is for the crossing” so as to manifest the rightawakening, so as to prepare the mind for a workable foundation for ultimate liberation. It is also in this contextual vein that a more proper interpretation was found for the pāli composite word “upekkhā-satipārisuddhiṃ”; its role in the practice of the forth jhāna was further discussed.
目次一、前言 6
二、研究方法與進路 8
(一) Walters的兩種解經方法 9
(二) 聚焦的經典文獻 12
三、佛四禪源流的前人研究 13
四、資料分析與討論 14
(一) 世尊對兩婆羅門師禪法的批判為何? 16
(二) 世尊對耆那教修道方法的批判為何? 18
1. 身行意行(修身修心)孰重 19
2. 斷食與無息禪無益於成道解脫 22
3. 初禪之樂是通往覺的道路(之資糧) 23
(三) 從初禪開展連接到二禪的經典線索 24
(四) 從二禪開展到三、四禪的內在理路 28
1. 喜樂的資糧作用貫穿初禪到三禪 29
2. 正覺的目的貫穿了四禪系統(二禪到三禪的內在理路) 30
3. 從三禪開展到四禪的內在理路 34
五、結語 39
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数40
作成日2019.07.12
更新日期2019.07.24



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