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禪式的死亡:傳統與當代的視角=Chan Ways of Dying: Traditional and Contemporary Perspectives
著者 釋慧空 (著)=Karma Lekshe Tsomo (au.)
掲載誌 第四屆近現代漢傳佛教論壇
出版年月日2018.01
出版者財團法人聖嚴教育基金會
資料の種類會議論文=Proceeding Article
言語中文=Chinese
抄録 令人難以置信,有關禪對於死亡的研究出版的不多,遑論歷來對於死亡及死亡概念的記述。十二世紀曹洞宗的祖師惟照曾經告誡他的弟子「如大死人」,意指散亂心之死,亦即開悟。惟照云「禪客莫問活。你但死了更死。你又不曾死。只管要活作什麼。」在死亡的嚴峻議題之下,其他所有公案相形失色。同時,禪宗門人面對死亡時,依然受到在習禪之前的薰習,以及人人生而有之的情緒的影響。討論禪宗在當今東亞的傳承、再興,以及轉化時,此教導至為相關。置禪宗反傳統及其負盛名的隨意不羈不談,在佛教教義架構裡,一般認為禪宗在六道輪迴裡馳騁,奔向一個清楚的目標──證悟。這條證悟之道,如果不能讓人了生死,就不是禪。惟照對於生死大事的闡釋之所以高於其他公案,似乎直指那顯露出佛性的絕然寂靜。十一世紀的投子義青而言,他似乎也認為大死即默照。止息並非遙不可及:實然觸手可及。丹霞子淳教導弟子需放下萬緣只管坐著。鈴木俊隆也說過類似的話「不要動。只管死去。一刻接著一刻。這是你最後一刻,你完全不得救。甚至證悟也救不了你,因為這是你的最後一刻。所以要對自己真誠,而且全然的表達自己。」這個公案或是探討只要心識的止息就可以帶來「深廣的瞭解」;抑或更有深意。本文將援引多重學理來探究禪對於死亡議題的思想以及實踐,在社會,宗教心理學在中國文學以及華人社區的意義。

Surprisingly little research has been published about Chan perspectives on death, and even less is known about how Chan conceptions of death and dying have evolved over time. Sometime during the twelfth century, the Caodong Chan master Weizhao famously admonished his disciples to “be like someone who has died the great death,” alluding to the death of the deluded mind, or enlightenment. In a twist on Zhauangzi’s famous adage, Weizhao tells a student: “Why be concerned about returning to life if one does not yet know how to die? Why be concerned about enlightenment if one does not know how to put out the flames of delusion?” The great matter of death seems to render all other koans irrelevant. At the same time, pre-Buddhist influences and human emotions continue to affect the ways in which Chan practitioners face the reality of death. In discussing the transmission, revitalization, and transformation of Chan Buddhism in modern East Asia, this inquiry is more relevant than ever. Ignoring its iconoclasm and iconic spontaneity, traditional Chan was understood within the Buddhist doctrinal framework as a path to awakening that traverses the six realms of cyclic existence toward a clearly defined goal. A path that does not liberate one from birth and death does not qualify to be Chan. Weizhao’s interpretation of the great matter of death that supercedes all other koans seems to allude to a total quietude that allows one’s Buddha nature to shine forth. In the eleventh-century Yiqing xingchuan, too, the great death seems to be equated with silent illumination. Rest and cessation are not some distant place, but imminently accessible. Danxia Zichun counsels the Chan student to “let go of all worldly concerns and sit totally still.” Susuki Roshi concurs: “Don’t move. Just die. Moment after moment. This is your last moment, so nothing can save you now. Not even enlightenment will help you now, because this is your last moment. So be true to yourself and express yourself fully.” The koan is whether “broad and penetrating comprehension” can arise from a simple absence of mental activity or whether it expresses something beyond that. This paper will apply a multi-disciplinary approach to explore the social, religious, and psychological implications of Chan Buddhist thought and practice related to death and dying, both in Chinese literature and in contemporary Chinese communities.
ヒット数4
作成日2020.01.15
更新日期2020.01.15



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