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從真理的「如實性」與「無顛倒性」看瑜伽行派三種勝義的成立脈絡與內涵=Looking at the Lines of Development and Content of Yogācāra Three Kinds of Ultimate Truth from the Truths of 'Reality' and 'Non-Inversion'
著者 陳一標 (著)=Chen, I-biau (au.)
掲載誌 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
巻号n.97
出版年月日2021.06.25
ページ5 - 78
出版者正觀雜誌社
出版サイト http://www.tt034.org.tw
出版地南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者單位:佛光大學佛教學系副教授
Department of Buddhist studies, Fo Guang University
キーワード勝義=ultimate truth; 真如=true suchness; 法=Dharma; 真實異=true reality; 瑜伽行派=Yogācāra
抄録一般認為世俗諦是世間的真理,勝義諦則是出世間的真理,從被認識的客觀面來掌握它們。但是《辯中邊論.真實品》在解釋勝義諦時,曾巧妙地運用梵文解釋複合詞的依主釋( tatpurusa)、有財釋(bahuvrīhi)、持業釋(karmadhāraya),將其拆解成「最殊勝的無分別智的對象」、「以最殊勝者為對象或目的的」、「最殊勝者就是義利(利益)」,而且分別具體指涉真如、勝道、涅槃,而這三者正好就是修行所應悟的境、所應修的行以及所應證的果。而中觀學派的清辯同樣依三種複合詞解法所得到的是「最殊勝的無分別智的對象=真如」、「隨順勝義者=般若」、「最殊勝的對象=真如」,其中隨順勝義與勝道的內含相通,涅槃不外是真如的實證,所以唯識與中觀所說的三種勝義的解釋識相近的。
本文嘗試從佛教當中與真理相關的概念來做分析,企圖由此找出唯識學派三種勝義成立的脈絡,並由此深入理解其內在意涵。結果發現「法」這個概念,若站在佛教重視實踐的精神來看,其最首出的意義在於作為八正道的「中道法」,但也可含攝所觀察的緣起、四諦的真理以及所證得的解脫境界亦即涅槃。《俱舍論》在解釋阿毘達磨時說無漏慧因為可以對觀四諦、對向涅槃,所以是勝義的阿毘達磨,也可看到以慧行對理境與行果的架構。再看唯識學派在解釋「諦」時,除了強調其「如如(tatham)、不離如(avitatham)、不異如(ananyatham)」的「如實性」(bhūtatā)外,還強調其自相不會欺瞞,見其自相會有不顛倒的覺知(buddhi)或勝解(adhimoksa)現起,也就是諦還有「無顛倒性」的一面,前者被稱為所知真如,後者被稱為能知真如。
透過對唯識學派有關「真實義」(tattva-artha)(含二種真實、四種真實、六種真實)與二諦、三性、五法(相、名、分別、真如、正智)之對應關係的研究,發現唯識學最終將世俗定義為「有漏的心、心所以及它們所認識的對象」,將勝義定義為「無漏的心、心所以及它們所認識的對象」,乃是承繼著佛教以實踐為核心關懷,談真理必然與去除了染污、障礙的主觀的智慧不相離的,甚至於說智慧即是真理。於是在解釋勝義的語義時,一方面巧妙地符合梵文複合詞的解釋方法,一方面在教義上,使勝義同時具有真如、勝道、涅槃的意涵,承載著修行的境、行、果的角色。

It is commonly thought that the conventional truth (saṃvṛti-satya) is the mundane truth, whereas the ultimate truth (paramārtha-satya) is transmundane truth, a position taken from their objective aspect as that which is cognized. However, when explaining the ultimate truth, the text of the Madhyānta-vibhāga, 'Tattvapariccheda,' skillfully utilizes the three ways of breaking down compounds in Sanskirt, i.e. tatpuruṣa, bahuvrīhi, and karmadhāraya, to render the term respectively into: 'the object of supreme nonconceptual gnosis,' 'taking the supreme as object or goal,' and 'the supreme is itself the benefit.' This is further broken down to specifically refer to: true suchness(tathatā), the supreme path(pratipattiparamārtha), and nirvāṇa, where these three are also: the object to be realized through cultivation, the practices to be cultivated, and the result be realized. Bhāviveka of the Madhyamaka school also uses these three ways of breaking down compounds to explain the ultimate truth, when he states: 'the object of supreme nonconceptual gnosis=true suchness,' 'that which conforms to the ultimate truth=prajñā,' and 'the supreme object=true suchness,' and we can see that 'that which conforms to the ultimate truth' is almost identical to the supreme path, as nirvāṇa is the realization of true suchness. This reveals that the differences between Vijñaptimātratā and Madhyamaka schools are not so much.
This paper will make an analysis of those concepts which are connected with 'truth' in Buddhism, with the aim to find the lines of development by which the Vijñaptimātratā school's three kinds of ultimate truth were established, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of their content. The result was the discovery that the concept 'dharma,' when viewed from the Buddhist emphasis on the spirit of actualization, has as its foremost meaning the 'dharma of the middle way' in the eightfold path. However, it can also refer to dependent origination, the four truths, and the state of liberation to be realized, i.e. nirvāṇa, as objects of contemplation. When the Abhidharmakośa explains the Abhidharma position, it states that because contaminated wisdom contemplates the four truths, the object of nirvāṇa, it is therefore the Abhidharma in the ultimate sense. From this we can also see the structure of the act of wisdom toward the principle as object and result of practice. When further examining the Vijñaptimātratā school's explanation of 'truth,' apart from emphasizing that is is 'suchness' (tatham), 'not apart from suchness' (avitatham), and its 'reality' (bhūtatā) which is 'not other than suchness' (ananyatatham), there is also emphasize on the non-deceptive nature of its own characteristic. On perceiving its own characteristic, there is the manifestation of either a non-inverted intuition (buddhi) or release (adhimokṣa), which just indicates that truth also has a non-inverted aspect, with the former named true suchness of the known, and the latter named true suchness of the knower.
Throug
目次引言 7
一、從「法」的意涵以及說一切有部對「阿毘達磨」的解釋看勝義 10
二、唯識學派對「諦」的定義的進一步解釋 22
三、《瑜伽師地論.菩薩地》中〈真實義品〉的真實義與勝義諦的連結 32
四、《瑜伽師地論》攝抉擇分所見二諦與真實、三性、五法的關係 39
五、《辯中邊論》及其安慧釋論如何從依主、有財、持業三釋得出境、行、果的三種勝義 51
(一) 義勝義artha-paramārtha (依主釋) 55
(二) 得勝義prāpti-paramārtha (持業釋) 58
(三) 正行勝義 pratipatti-paramārtha(有財釋) 59
六、清辯如何從持業、依主、有財三釋來解釋勝義 62
七、結論 67
參考書目 72
ISSN16099575 (P)
ヒット数19
作成日2021.09.02
更新日期2021.11.24



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