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智者的圓頓思想
作者 郭朝順
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.5
出版日期1992.07
頁次121 - 145
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
關鍵詞天台智顗; 圓頓; 圓頓教; 圓頓止觀; 圓教; 頓教; 天台宗
摘要「圓頓」概念是天台智者大師所提出的一項中國佛學
的終極理想,它象徵著究極圓滿,具足無缺,中正不偏,一
時全具的了義精神. 智者大師的圓頓思想之開展可以分別自
「教」,「觀」兩方面來說. 圓頓教所指的乃是《法華經》
開權顯實,會三歸一. 開跡顯本的如來一佛乘「圓」義之「
頓」說. 因此智者大師的圓頓教所詮義理的內容應即以化法
圓教為其所詮,而化儀頓教則是指如來對此圓教教義所詮
解的方式. 不過若依這說法則智者大師的圓頓教的理想便僅
只剩下圓教的理念為其內容,至於圓頓中的「頓」義則屬
虛說,可是智者大師除《法華經》開權顯實之「圓義頓說
」外,智者大師更發展出獨特的「圓頓止觀」法門. 如果說
圓頓教是智者大師自《法華經》中所觀察得到的如來教法的
究竟理想,則完整的天台圓頓理念便有賴此觀法之建立方
才完成. 因天台的圓頓理念乃以教觀雙美為其特色之所在
,而圓頓教的提出其實只完成圓教理念的推演,圓頓止觀的
完成才補足在觀法上修行實踐的法門. 智者大師的圓頓止觀
法門,是以為凡夫一心本具空,假,中三觀的能力,如若三
觀圓滿具足圓融無礙,則可頓觀一切諸法三諦圓融的圓義,
進而證知「一色一香莫非中道」的諸法實相. 「圓義頓說」
之圓頓教門,於此轉而為「圓觀頓悟」的圓頓止觀法門,
這二者的結合便為智者大師的圓頓思想之完成.

The concept of "complete and immediate" 圓頓
which is a terminal idea of Chinese Buddhism took by
T'en-t'ai Chih-I 天台智顗 (Chih-ja 智者 is his
another name). The concept indicates a final spirit
of Buddhism:that all things are exhausted coherence
without any accident,lacking and unsatisfactory.
T'en-t'ai Chih-I had deducted the thought about
"complete and immediate" by the two ways:1.
"complete and immediate teaching" 圓頓教; 2.
"complete and immediate insight or examination" 圓頓
止觀. First,Ten-tai Chih-I had believed that the
"complete and immediate teaching" is the Buddha's
only one and truest vehicle of teaching which
was never said in any other three vehicle `sutra`,
but was completely (perfectly) 圓滿地 and
immediately (suddenly) 頓時地 taught by Buddha in
the Lotus `sutra` 法華經. So,the "complete and
immediate teaching" can be seperated as two parts,
the one is the Buddha's doctrine called "complete
teaching of doctrine" 化法圓教,another is the
Buddha's teaching method called "immediate or sudden
teaching of method" 化儀頓教. The "complete
teaching" 圓教 is the real doctrine of "complete
and immediate teaching",but the "immediate teaching"
頓教 is just its method.

T'en-t'ai Chih-I also had developed the
"complete and immediate insight". What means that
"complete and immediate insight"? T'en-t'ai Chih-I
thought that all the livings have the capacity in
his heart to comprehend the three dogmas of
universal 空,particular 假,and middle 中,as one
and the same,as a unity at one and the same time.
After learning to use the capacity,people can
justify the truth of the world:there is nothing
more than the middle dogma, and people would see the
real face of the world as the Buddha has seen,and
relieve himself from pain which caused by prejudice
and stubborness.

"Teaching" 教 and "insight" 觀 are the two
important parts of T'en-t'ai school and can't be
lack any one of them. Chih-I used the "complete and
immediate teaching" to develop the doctrine of
"complete and immediate teaching" (but "complete
teaching" is his real intention),and Chin-I had
also tried to form a practical method to insight the
truth of the world,it is the "complete and
immediate insight". Combine both of them,the
T'en-t'ai Chin-I's idea of "complete and immediate"
just to be finished.
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1067
建檔日期1998.07.22
更新日期2017.06.15










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