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六朝佛家美學--以宗炳暢神說為中心的研究
作者 林朝成
出處題名 國際佛學研究=Annual of International Buddhistic Studies
出版日期1992.12
頁次177 - 200
出版者國際佛學研究中心
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
關鍵詞佛教美學; 佛教藝術=Buddhist Art; 宗炳; 暢神說; 慧遠; 禪宗
摘要宗炳山水美學奠基在「神」的概念上. 人物的傳神,較
容易理解,因人具神精,然山水何「神」之有?又如何「
暢神」呢? 「暢神」說的提出,代表著「神」的概念須經
過質的突破與衍異,對其理論的認真思考,乃理解中國繪畫
美學的重要關鍵.

學者在詮釋宗炳「暢神」說的意義時,大都從玄學的角
度著眼,認為這是莊學思想的時代產物,而忽略其所蘊涵的
佛教思想與信仰. 這是因他們未了解慧遠自然觀對宗炳深
刻的影響所致.
慧遠的自然觀以感應為體,感應有二義,一者指「報應
自然」的世俗流轉,一者指「法身感應」的佛本懷. <佛影
銘> 把整個山河大地都看作是佛無所不在「神明」的體現,
因此自然山水的美也就具了一種和佛相聯的精神意義. 宗
炳 <畫山水序> 正是承續慧遠這種自然觀,表現於其觀物的
方法,並要求繪畫美學須達到「寫山水之神」的功能效果
.
本文從這個進路出發,認為「暢神」說實包合有宗教,
玄學與審美三方面的趣味. 而就佛家美學來說,它不只遠早
於禪宗美學,在公元五世紀初就建立其理論,且貼合著佛法
身的終極關懷,將中國山水畫注入了佛教的觀點,其重要性
,值得我們重視與闡揚.

Chung Pen's landscape esthetics is based on
the concept of [charm]. Avivid portrayal of human
figures can be easier to comprehend,for human being
possesses facial expression. However,how can
landscape possess "Charm"? How can it be Possible to
clear its "Charm"?

The theory of "Clearing Charm",representing
the concept of "Charm",must go through the breaking
through and variation of quality. Doing serious
thinking to the theory is the important key to
comprehend the Chinese painting esthetics.

Scholars, for the most part,expound the
theory of "Clearing Charm",form the viewpoint of
metaphysics, thinking of it as the product of times
from the study of Chuang-Chou,Neglecting the Ideas
And Beliefs of Buddhism in it. This is due to their
failure to understand the profound influence of Huei
Yuan's view on Nature on Chung Pen.

Huei Yuan's view on Nature takes induction as
theory. Induction has two meanings; one refers to
the vulgar transmission of "Retribution for Nature",
and the other "Dharmakaya Induction. Inscription of
Shadow of Buddha" regards the good earth of
mountains and rivers as the embodiment of the gods,
which is believed to be present everywhere.
Therefore the beauty of natural scenery,too,
possesses a spiritual meaning related to Buddha.
Chung Pen's Preface to Painting Landscape exactly
aucceeds to Huei Yuan's outlook on nature,expressed
in ways of observing things, and requiring that
painting esthetics must come to reach the effects of
portraying the charm of landscape.

This article starts from this way,the theory
of "Clearing Charm",which actually contains the fun
of religion,metaphysics and estheticism. In view of
Buddhist esthetics, the theory of "Clearing Charm",
founded in the fifth century,is not only far
earlier than esthetics of the Zen sect of Buddhism,
but also appropriate to the ultimate concern of
dharmakaya, infusing the ideas of Buddhism into
Chinese landscape painting. Its importance is well
worth our appreciation and elaboration.
點閱次數398
建檔日期1998.07.22
更新日期2018.01.23










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