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再論《妙法蓮華經》之「十如是」譯文=Another Look at the Translation "Ten Such-Likes" in the Lotus Sutra
作者 黃國清 (著)=Huang, Kuo-ching (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.13.1
出版日期2000.05
頁次137 - 154
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項n.13.1為第13期卷上‧中文篇
關鍵詞法華經=Lotus Sutra; 十如是=Ten Such-Likes; 五種法=Five Dharmas; 大智度論=Da Zhidu Lun; 意譯=Interpretation
摘要鳩摩羅什所譯《妙法蓮華經》的<方便品>中,有所謂「十如是」的譯文,即:諸法如是相,如是性,如是體,如是力,如是作,如是因,如是緣,如是果,如是報,如是本末究竟等.」考《正法華經》,《法華經論》兩種漢譯文獻,及現存梵本,藏譯本,發現對應於此段的文句均甚為一致,僅有五項,除「相」與「性」兩項外,「十如是」的其他項目並未出現. 現代學者們的研究指出「十如是」的大多數項目可在《大智度論》中找到,推定羅什根據這部論書的文義而對「十如是」作解釋性的翻譯. 除用語的相似性外,《妙法華》列舉十個如是是為開闡「諸法實相」,《大智度論》出現「十如是」之數項的文脈也旨在說明「諸法實相」,故知兩者實有義理上的密切關聯性. 從現存梵本來看,「十如是」的文義極為抽象,最接近梵本的《法華經論》譯為「何等法,云何法,何以法,何相法,何體法」,總不及什譯本的具體明確. 羅什的譯法,有助提高漢地讀誦者對此段經文
的接受度.

In the "Expedient Means" chapter of Kumarajiva's translation of the Lotus Sutra, there is a passage that reads "The dharmas are like this characteristic, like this nature,like this essence,like this power, like this action,like this cause,like this condition, like this result,like this retribution,like this fundamental and derivative ultimate." The other two Chinese translations, the Sanskrit,and the Tibetan translation are all in agreement at this point,but of the "ten such-likes" they only include those concerning characteristic and nature. Scholars have pointed out that most of the ten items may be found out in the Da zhi-du lun (Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom),and there has been speculation that Kumarajiva performed an interpretive translation based on his knowledge of the Da zhidu lun text. The Lotus Sutra enumeration of the ten such-likes occurs as an explanation of the true characteristics of the dharmas, and the contexts in which the categories included in the ten such-likes appear in the Da zhidu lun are all aimed at the explanation of the true characteristics of the dharmas, so that we may accept the very close doctrinal relationship between the relevant sections of the two texts. Based on the extant Sanskrit version of the Sutra, the meaning of the ten such-likes passage is very abstract,as the Chinese translation of the Lotus Sutra Treatise,which closely approximates the Sanskrit text reads:"What dharmas, what kind of dharmas, what resemblance of dharmas, what characteristic of dharmas, what essence of dharmas."This achieves neither the specificity nor the understandability of the Kumarajiva translation. Therefore,even as we recognize that the ten such-likes rendering is a paraphrase,we may affirm that Kumarajiva had a doctrinal basis in arriving at this translation. At the same time,we should be aware that this rendition allowed the passage to be easily understood by Chinese readers.

目次引言
一. 漢譯三本譯文的對照
二. 梵本與藏譯本的參照
三.《大智度論》相關文脈的考察
結語
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1129
建檔日期2000.07.21
更新日期2017.08.31










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