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大乘起源與開展之心理動力 -- 永恆懷念是大乘起源與開展的動力嗎? =The Psychological Force Behind the Origin and Development of the Mahayana: Is "Remembering Forever" the Original Force through which the Great Vehicle Came into Being and Grew?
作者 釋如石 (著)=Shih, Ru-shi (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.14
出版日期2001.09
頁次1 - 42
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
關鍵詞大乘起源=origin of the Mahayana; 集體潛意識=collective unconsciousness; 發菩提心=the development of bodhicitta; 十方佛=the buddhas of the ten directions; 念佛法門=the practice of being mindful of the Buddha; 神話心理=mythological psychology
摘要印順長老的兩部大作 --《初期大乘佛教之起源與開展》與《印度佛教思想史》,以「佛滅後,佛弟子對佛的永恆懷念」作為大乘起源與開展之原動力,搏得了臺灣學界一致的認同. 然而,該書所提出的論證,似乎仍不足以成立此命題. 因此在本文中,筆者擬另闢蹊徑,嘗試從人類更深廣集體潛意識中去探尋大乘興起的心理動力.首先,筆者假設:初期大乘經典之思想型態與佛弟子的心理需求是相呼應的. 如困某一思想型態之經典愈多且愈受重視,則表示此主流經典相對應之心理需求度也愈高; 而這種心理需求,很可能就是主導大乘起源與開展的原動力. 其次,筆者從初期大乘經典中,找出了它們基本思想型態 -- 發菩提心,修菩薩行而成佛; 且又在後期大乘的《勝鬘經》,《究竟一乘寶性論》和《大乘起信論》中,發現有足以作為大乘發心形上基礎的「佛性清淨正因」和「真如薰習」的說法. 從心理學,宗教學和神話學的觀點來看,這種大乘發心的思想原型,正反應了人類普遍「渴望無限」,「追求超越」,「嚮往圓滿」的深層心理需求. 而這種由避苦求樂之生命本能提升而成的最高心理需求,正是釋尊圓滿成佛的導因,也是世界各大宗教向上發展最主的在動力. 因此,以佛弟子集體潛意識中欲倣效佛陀,追求超越,嚮往圓滿的心理需求作為大乘起源與開展之原動力,應是非常恰當的.當我們把這種深層心理需求作為主的思考角度來探討大乘興起的問題時,「佛滅後,佛弟子對佛的永恆懷念,對舍利的建塔供奉,及有關佛的本生,譬喻,因緣和十方淨土,十方現在諸佛菩薩等教典的流傳」,乃至於「大乘之天化」,「如來藏思想」和「念佛法門」等大乘起源與開展的種種現象,才會呈現出如本文所闡明的另一種更深刻,更正面的意義.

In two of his major works, The Origin and Development of Early Mahayana Buddhism and An Intellectual History of Indian Buddhist Thought,the elder master Yin-shun regarded "the fact that the Buddha's disciples remembered him forever after his death" as the original force through which the Great Vehicle arose and developed. Though the proofs he adduced do not seem sufficient to establish his theory,it became widely accepted by the scholarly community in Taiwan. Thus the present writer tries to introduce a new approach by looking into the deep levels of the human collective subconsciousness to find the psychological factor behind the rise of the Mahayana. The present writer first formulates the hypothesis that the ideological format of the early Mahayana scriptures corresponded to the psychological needs of the Buddhist practitioners, i.e. it was a reflection of spiritual requirements when the texts of a certain ideological persuasion increased in number and gained in importance until they constituted the mainstream. It is well possible that these psychological needs were the driving force behind the origin and development of the Great Vehicle. Next,the present writer identifies the common thought patterns in early Mahayana texts:the development of bodhicitta, the practice of the bodhisattva path, and the accomplishment of buddhahood. In later Mahayana scriptures -- the Srimalasutra, the Ratnagotravibhaga, and the Ta-sheng ch'i-hsin lun -- ideas like "the buddha nature which is the pure cause" or "transforming influence of suchness" are found which served as the metaphysical basis for the development of a Mahayana frame of mind. Looked at from the angles of psychology,religious studies, and mythology,this archetypal Mahayana motivation reflects the deep human spiritual need of "boundless hope","striving for transcendence" and "yearning for perfection." These most exalted psychological needs, the sublimation of the life instinct which strives to avoid suffering and attain happiness, were the causes that lead Sakyamuni to the realization of perfect awakening. They are also the main inner force behind the development of the major world religions. Thus it seems to be most appropriate to regard the collective subconscious desires of Buddhist practitioners, i.e. the wish to emulate the buddha, to strive for transcendence and to yearn for perfection,as the main factor originally leading to the arising and development of the Greater Vehicle. As soon as we begin to analyze the question from this point of view,many phenomena related to the beginnings and the subsequent development of the Mahayana, like "the fact that the Buddha's disciples remembered him forever after his death, the construction and veneration of stupas as well as the spread of scriptures which deal with life stories of the Buddha and of disciples or introduce the pure realms or the buddhas and bodhisattvas in the ten directions, " even "the theistic trend within the Mahayana, " "the idea of a tathagatagarbha" and "the practice of being mindful of the Buddha",acquire a new,more basic,more profound,more positive meaning.
目次一. 前言
(一) 引言
(二) 問題之癥結
(三) 基本假設
二. 立論依據 -- 大乘之思想原型及與此相應之深層心理需求
(一) 大乘經之思想原型 -- 發心菩提,修菩薩行,圓成佛道
(二) 與發心思想原型相應之深層心理需求
1. 心理學之觀點
2. 宗教學之觀點
3. 大乘佛學之觀點
三. 大乘起源與開展之心理意義
(一) 「永恆懷念」與「崇奉舍利」之心理意義
(二) 「十方佛」與「理想佛」之心理意義
1. 「十方佛」之心理意義
2. 「理想佛 -- 神」之心理意義
(三) 大乘「天化」之意義
1. 人間勝過諸天嗎
2. 大乘佛法「顛倒」了嗎
3. 鬼,畜生菩薩和他方菩薩之象徵意義
(四) 大乘「如來藏說」之心理意義
1. 後期與秘密大乘非「老年佛教」
2. 「如來藏說」是藥非毒,利多弊少
3. 「如來藏說」之心理意義
(五) 「念佛法門」之宗教心理功能
1. 部派與大乘「念佛」之基本差異
2. 「念佛法門」消解概念之心理功能
3. 「念佛法門」強化發心之心理功能
四. 結論
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1387
建檔日期2001.10.19
更新日期2017.06.20










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