東アジア仏教の諸問題：聖厳博士古稀記念論集= An Anthology of East Asian BUddhism:A Commemorative Volume in Honor of Ven.Sheng-yen on His 70th Birthday
東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
English Abstract：p. 205-206.
English Abstract The Buddha gave up the realization of the Buddhist Dharma within secular society and attempted to realize it within the confines of the Sangha. This historical fact causes the arising of the concern as to whether the realization of the Pure-land in the secular world is a kind of contradictory intellectual construct. However this intellectual construct is one that can be easily dissipated by a single resolute Buddhist. An actual example of this can be seen in Dharma Master Sheng-yen. This is done through strict self-discipline，and moreover，a praxis of flexibility in regard to society.
With this in mind，I would like to broadly examine actual examples of Zen Buddhism，the Nenbutsu (nian-fo)，and the maintenance of the Precepts as found in the history of Zen Buddhism and elucidate the limits of and possibilities there within. My methodology will begin by examining relevant issues of praxis found in the various events in the early Zen-school from the Bodhidharma onward. I particularly have focused on the relation between the precepts and the Nenbutsu.
In conclusion，it is a fact that there are many mixed motives and methods which cannot be placed into a simplistic doctrinal and developmental perspective.
The reason for this is that there are two conflicting or contradicting purposes：the sect of Zen Buddhism as a primarily elite group of resolute monks, and secondarily the goal of salvation for the masses, common monks and those who are socially disadvantaged.
This structural contradiction，however，increases internal energy and was the cause for the continuing development of a new and vibrant Buddhism.
On one hand，even if the pitfall of degeneration (into secular demands) awaits, Buddhism holds that the reason for the problems of actual society are based on desire and attachment. Even if this overcoming is fundamentally left up to individual endeavors, the difficulty in achieving this overcoming must not be blamed on intellectual lethargy. That which cuts through the everyday is most likely not lofty idealism，but rather common resolve and the desire to maintain and practice this. For this reason it is necessary to think out the development of a new ideal for the Sangha, which must deal with society-at-large and think of a concrete method for realizing this (ideal). The fruits of Dharma Master Sheng-yen's practice confirm this fact.