Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA, US [伯克利, 加利福尼亞州, 美國]
Korea Research Monograph
佛教與儒家=儒佛會通=Buddhism and Confucianism; 韓國佛教=朝鮮佛教=Korean Buddhism=Koryo Buddhism=Choson Buddhism; 朝鮮王朝 (1392~1910)=Choson dynasty (1392~1910); 韓國佛教史=Korean Buddhist History
As the 14th century ended, Korea was struggling with the aftermath of the Mongol era. It was a complex picture of ancient patterns of social practice being questioned in troubled times. Although the combination of secular ruler and spiritual teacher had long endured in Korea, the return of Han rule in China meant that dynastic inheritance was based solely on family lineage. There was no longer any need for the religious leadership to be a partner in the political arena. Confucian statecraft emerged as the dominant force in political life.
The Choson era in Korea reflected a shift in the policies of governance. No longer was spiritual leadership needed by a king; Confucian teachings would provide all the principles needed for a reasonable and healthy regime. In a drive to have a completely Confucian code of governing, the Korean officials could no longer accept the policy of accommodating Buddhism and Taoism. Buddhism was too closely identified with the former Koryo royal house. The new rulers of Korea rejected any tradition that might give legitimacy to their predecessors. Thus Buddhism was attacked as a tradition filled with corruption and practices detrimental to society.
The dismissal of Buddhism from the court did not, however, destroy the religion. The result of this official and urban rejection was the assimilation of Buddhism into the rural life of Korea. As a marginalized tradition, Choson Buddhism served those excluded from positions of power. Chief among them were women, who turned to Buddhism and shamanism for solace and empowerment.
Introduction / Lewis Lancaster Policies toward Buddhism in late Koryŏ and early Chosŏn / Han U-gŭn The perspective of the meditation (Sŏn) and Doctrine (Kyo) Schools in the early Chosŏn period / Kwon Ki-jong A study of Sŏlcham's Commentary on the Diagramm of the Dharma Realm / Mok Chŏng-bae Master Hyujŏng: his thought and Dharma lineage / Kim Yŏng-tʼae