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明末憨山德清的《法華經》思想詮釋=The Thought of the Lotus Sutra interpreted by Han-shan De-qing in late Ming China
作者 黃國清 (著)=Huang, Kuo-ching (au.)
出處題名 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
卷期n.59
出版日期2011.12.25
頁次5 - 55
出版者正觀雜誌社
出版者網址 http://www.tt034.org.tw
出版地南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為南華大學宗教學所助理教授=Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Religious Studies, Nan-hua University
關鍵詞憨山德清=Deqing; 法華經注疏=commentary on the Lotus Sutra; 判教=doctrinal classification; 科判=structural analysis of the text, theory of true mind and true reality; 佛知見=the Knowing and Seeing of the Buddha
摘要  本文研究明末憨山德清的《法華經》詮釋,聚焦於判教論、科判論與真心實相論,闡釋德清關於此經的特殊思想。在判教論,他主張《法華經》與《華嚴經》義理平等互融,共譜如來一代教化始終,嘗試通過前經義理詮解後經。他借用華嚴五教判,判《華嚴》為圓教,而將《法華》判屬「終教」。然他所用「終教」意義有別於華嚴判教,非指眾生成佛的教義,而是意指如來教化之終結的「化儀」意義。此不同判攝標準並不妨二經義理平等,德清會通二經的佛智意涵,並說《法華經》「純談實相」,通
於《華嚴》圓教。
  在科判論,德清視佛知見的開示悟入為此經大旨,並以此種程序為科判架構。他權分佛知見為心境二面,「開佛知見」著重心的面向,開曉自心即是佛心,令聞法者信受此理。「示佛知見」藉佛力顯示法身常住的真境,增進他們對佛知見之心與境的完整理解。「悟佛知見」由釋尊示現自己的法身全體,提升聞法者達於領悟層次;又講述持經功德與加持力以鞏固末世持經之心。「入佛知見」是達致真實體證的菩薩十地,講說由智體發起行用,淨除微細無明煩惱的高層實踐。這種科判方式大幅擴充正宗分範
圍,為各品賦與重要的義理價值。
  在真心實相論,德清注釋《法華經》最關切者是佛智的解明,不明佛知見即無由理解此經欲令眾生成佛的深妙意趣。為對境智不二的佛智內容做詳實解明,德清採分解式說明:心是智慧的主體作用,照顯法界實相,及流出權實教法;境是智慧的客體呈現,
顯現為法身全體,又表現為華嚴法界圓融無盡理境。德清循著《法華經》文脈,論說此經妙法的開演因緣、權實二智的化導功用皆源自佛智;全經內容即是逐層顯明真心實相的過程。德清的注釋融通《法華》與《華嚴》二經的義理,凸顯佛知見於大乘佛法的
首要地位,及扣緊《法華經》文脈逐步引領佛知見的領解與修證。

This article investigates the philosophy of the Lotus Sūtra as interpreted by Hanshan Deqing in late Ming China. It will focus on his doctrinal classification (panjiao 判教), present his structural analysis of the text (kepan 科判), and examine the theory of true mind (zhenxin 真心) and true reality (shixiang 實相). Borrowing the five-part scheme of doctrinal classification from the Huayan School, he viewed the Avatamsaka Sūtra as the “perfect teaching” (yuanjiao 圓教) and the Lotus Sutra as the “Advanced Mahāyāna teaching (zhongjiao 終教).” For Deqing, the core meaning of these two sutras is the same, so he used the former sutra to interpret the latter one. Deqing suggested that the teachings in the Avatamsaka Sūtra and the Lotus Sūtra are the same when seen from the highest level of
Buddhist reality. However, the meaning of his “Advanced Mahāyāna teaching” is different from that of the Huayan School. Deqing’s “Advanced Mahāyāna teaching” represents the end of the Buddha’s teachings as explained from the perspective of the Buddha’s teaching method. This view is different from the “Advanced Mahāyāna teaching” of the Huayan School which
emphasizes the doctrine of all sentient beings’ potential attainment of Buddhahood.
As for Deqing's structural analysis of the text of the Lotus Sūtra, inspired by a paragraph in the text, Deqing divided the main body of the text into four parts: teaching (kai 開) the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha (fozhijian 佛知見), displaying (shi 示) the Seeing and
Knowing of the Buddha, understanding (wu 悟) the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha, and penetrating (ru 入) the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha. At the first stage, the Buddha taught that the mind of an audience is the mind of the Buddha, and the Buddha led his audience to believe this fact. Then, he displayed the true object of the Dharma-body, and he led the audience to know that the true mind and the true object are one. At the third stage, he showed the entirety of his own Dharma-body to enhance the audience's level of understanding. The last part presents the highest level of Bodhisattva practices to help the audience sweep away the deepest defilements. Deqing’s structural analysis of the text expanded the meaning found in Buddhist scriptures.
Deqing considered “penetrating the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha” the most important concept in the Lotus Sūtra. Thus, the proper understanding of this concept is crucial to comprehending the deep meaning of this text. For a clear interpretation of the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha, Deqing skillfully divided the Buddha’s wisdom into two parts: 1) the mind, as subject, sees the true reality of the Dharma realm, and it produces the Buddha’s true and expedient teachings. 2) The object perceived by the mind displays the entirety of the Dharma body, and this fact can be explained through the theory of the perfect and endless Huayan Dharma-realm. Deqing follows the doctrines of the Lotus Sūtra to show the profound meaning of the Seeing and Knowing of the Buddha.
目次一、 前言 7
二、 華嚴與法華平等相成的判教論 11
三、 開示悟入為本的科判論 24
四、 顯明佛智的真心實相論 35
五、 結論 49
ISSN16099575 (P)
點閱次數141
建檔日期2012.11.28
更新日期2017.09.06










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