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釋迦菩薩「三祇百劫成佛」與「始願佛道」(1)=Boddhisattva Śākyamuni's Three Asamkhyeyas and 100 Kalpas' Career for Buddha and His Primordial Vow
作者 郭忠生 (著)=Kuo, Chung-sheng (au.)
出處題名 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
卷期n.59
出版日期2011.12.25
頁次93 - 262
出版者正觀雜誌社
出版者網址 http://www.tt034.org.tw/Magazine.htm
出版地南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為悲廣文教基金會董事。
關鍵詞劫=Kalpa; 阿僧祇=asamkhyeya; 數目系統=numbering system; 有情壽量=lifespan of sentient beings; 兜率天壽=lifespan of Tusita-heaven; 瞿迦梨事緣=the story of Kokalika; 成住壞空=formation-existence-destruction-non-existence of world; 諸佛相續=the sequentially appeared Buddha; 菩薩理論=Bodhisattva theory
摘要劫,在佛教有多樣化的意義;它常被當成是最大的時間計量單位,《阿含經》與《尼柯耶》以「芥子劫」等譬喻,來說明劫的長短,但實際上,這樣的方法,很難確定其真正的數值。《阿含經》與《尼柯耶》提及六欲天天眾的壽量,也說到某些善行,可以得天上一劫的梵福,還有提婆達多墮地獄一劫,再參考「瞿迦梨事緣」中的種種地獄壽量;部派論典進一步討論地獄有情的壽量,在這樣的脈絡之下,可以計算出劫的相對數值。
這只是就「有情世間」來說,要對劫有比較完整的認知,還必需考慮到世間成住壞空,所呈現出來的意義。在宿住隨念智的定型文句中,提及了成劫、壞劫、成壞劫,但沒有進一步的解說。
在這方面,佛典可以看到兩種傾向,其一是把世間的成住壞空,都看成是「阿僧祇劫 」,也就是一段難以計算的時期;其二是嘗試說明不同內容的劫,並說明其計算方式,如《大毘婆沙論》說劫有三種:中間劫、成壞劫、大劫,《俱舍論》則主張劫有四種:壞劫、成劫、中(間)劫、大劫。從其內容而言,這兩種見解是一樣的,但實際上還是無法計算出一劫究竟有多長的時間。
壞劫,可說就是世界末日;世間的毀壞分兩大過程:有情世間的「毀壞」與器世間(山河大地等等)的毀壞。有情世間的「毀壞」並不是所有的有情眾生全部如煙消雲散般的消失不見,反而是分別上昇到二禪天、三禪天或是四禪天。世界末日的開端,就是地獄的有情眾生全部命終,不再有墮地獄的情況;然後依序是不再有墮旁生、餓鬼:再下來就是人與欲界天,乃至初禪天,都分別上昇到二禪天、三禪天或是四禪天(有人主張某些地獄有情是移置到「他方世界」)。所以有情世間的「毀壞」,既不天譴,也不是道德敗壞的結果,當一切的有情都因其本身的能力而轉生到適當處所之後,接下來才是器世間的毀壞。
成劫,在壞劫經過一段很長時間之後,開始器世間的再造,以及有情世間的「新生」。不管是壞劫,還是成劫,都是有情世間與器世間分開進行,而且是「先壞後成」。
住劫,是有情眾生「正常」生活的階段,關於劫的時間長短,就是從住劫計算而來。住劫分成二十個中(間)劫,有現代學者認為一中(間)劫是16.800.000 年或是15.998.000 年,再由此算出一大劫的時間,但這樣的計算,還有討論的空間。
佛陀「生於世間,長於世間」,世間的成住壞空,對於佛陀的出世,有何影響?或是佛陀對世間成住壞空,有何影響?在菩薩修行「三阿僧祇劫百大劫」才成就佛果的理論之下,如何理解「阿僧祇」的意義?佛典可以看到許多數目系統,往往有「阿僧祇」這個數目,但又可以算出不同的數值,就此而論,佛教顯然無意確認其時間的長短。而在這「非常長久」的修行歷程中,相續出世的諸佛,必然有密切的關係。《中阿含經》第32《未曾有法經》說:「世尊(於)迦葉佛時始願佛道,行梵行」,形式上雖然突兀,實際上卻反應這種菩薩經長久修行的教理。

Kalpa, or Kappa, has various meaning in Buddhism, however, it is often taken as the longest unit of time. Mustard-like kalpa and other similes are used to illustrate the duration of kalpa in the Āgamas and Nikāyas, still such methods can not determine the real value of it. Further, the lifespan of the devas in Kāmadhātu, Some good conducts can enjoy happiness for one kalpa in the Brahma Realm, Devadattas’s falling into the hell for one kalpa, and the calculation of lifespan in various hells listed in the Story of KokAlika, all of these are told in the Āgamas and Nikāyas. Besides, the śāstras of Abhidharma Buddhism discuss the life span of sentient beings in hells. The relative value of kalpa can be known in these contexts.
The above treats only the realm of sentient beings, for a more comprehensive understanding, the description of four periods of the receptacle world (bhAjanaloka) , i. e. formation, existence, destruction, and non-existence, must be taken into consideration.
The kalpa of formation, the kalpa of destruction, the kalpa of formation-destruction are mentioned in formula passage for pUrva-nivA-AnusmRti-jJAnaM, but no details are given about these terms.
Two tendency can be found in Buddhist Canons, the first is to see these four periods is incalculable; the second one reveals the attempt to distinguish different kinds of kalpa, and describe the method of calculation. Acording to the Abhidharma-mahā-vibhASA, there are three kinds of kalpa, the intermediate, formation and destruction, and mahākalpa, While Abhidharmakośa holds four kinds, the formation, destruction, intermediate and mahākalpa. Actually there is no difference regarding to this two theories, however, no definite conclusion can be made as to the span of one kalpa.
The kalpa of destruction may be seen as end of the world. There are two distinct phase of its process: the ‘destruction’ of sentient beings and destruction proper of the receptacle world. The former does not mean that the sentient beings are all vanished into thin air. Quite on the contrary, sentient beings ascend respectively to the second, third or fourth dhyāna-heaven. Beginning of this process is marked by all sentient beings in the hell completed their lifespan and no newly-born is there, then comes the disappearance of animals, ghost, and finally human beings, devas of Kāmadhātu, even those lived in the first dhyāna-heaven, all ascend to the second dhyāna-heaven or above(some holds that some kinds of sentient beings in the hell are moved to ‘other world). The ‘destruction’ of sentient beings is caused by neither being doomed nor
falling of morals. After all sentient beings reach their proper place to stay in accordance their ability, the destruction proper of the receptacle world starts. <
ISSN16099575 (P)
資料來源
點閱次數730
建檔日期2012.12.27
更新日期2017.09.06










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