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如何理解《六祖壇經》的倫理學型態?=How to Comprehend the Types of Ethical Theories of "The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"?
作者 嚴瑋泓 (著)=Yen, Wei-hung (au.)
出處題名 國立臺灣大學哲學論評=National Taiwan University Philosophical Review
卷期n.50
出版日期2015.10
頁次71 - 101
出版者國立臺灣大學哲學系=NTU Philosophy Department
出版者網址 http://review.philo.ntu.edu.tw/
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
關鍵詞《六祖壇經》="The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"; 佛教倫理學=Buddhist ethics; 德行倫理學=virtue ethics; 結果主義=consequentialism; 禪宗倫理=ethics of Chan Buddhism
摘要中國佛教倫理思維的特色,在於將戒律的規範性轉移到對心性的重視,其道德實踐的終極目的乃透過排除遮蔽心性的煩惱與顯露清淨本性等進路而完成的。此種主張以禪宗為最,《六祖壇經》中「心平何勞持戒?行直何用修禪?」、「心地無非,自性戒」等說法,特別顯露了中國佛教倫理思維的特色。本文以《壇經》作為探究以禪宗為基礎的倫理學理路。首先從戒律與心性論的視角思考《壇經》的道德思考屬於哪種類型的倫理學?再者,反思《壇經》獨特的倫理思想型態是否與西方倫理學之理論有對話的可能性?一方面從《壇經》內在倫理型態思考其與德行倫理學的相似性,並論述其是否可能為某種形式的德行倫理學;二方面從禪宗哲學明心見性、解脫成佛之終極目的,思考是否可將《壇經》的倫理型態視為某種形式的結果主義?本文的研究成果顯示,《壇經》的倫理學型態包含了返回自性的理路與從緣起與無常所構築的世界觀所引發的「無所住」視角,據此產生一種認識的超越性而指向涅槃解脫。如是般從「認識」而「解脫」的理路提示著一種自律的倫理學型態,在此種型態中,道德主體藉著實踐智慧自發地出於善、完成善。若從理論的相似性來理解《壇經》的倫理學型態,我們最多只能謹慎地作出如下的結論:若從理論的相似性來看,《壇經》的倫理學型態約略可將其類比於德行倫理學與結果主義,甚至是義務論的主張,但若從其理論的內在理路看來,在理論的相似性之外,還必須從差異性來把握其倫理學型態。

The distinguishing feature of Chinese Buddhist ethics is its emphasis of mind-nature over the normativity of precepts. In this system, the ultimate aim of moral practice is achieved through eradicating mental defilements to reveal pure mind-nature-a proposition which is strongly held by Chan Buddhism and clearly revealed through verses in "The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch": “With the tranquil mind, why labor to maintain the precepts? With practice direct, what use is it to cultivate dhyana"; "For the mindground to be without error is the precept of the self-nature". This paper uses "The Platform Sutra" as the theoretical background for probing the ethics on which Chan Buddhism built its foundations. First of all, I analyze the type of ethics that the content of the "The Platform Sutra" can be said to display from the perspective of the view on precepts and mind-nature and subsequently offer my opinion on the similarities between virtue ethics and the type of ethics displayed in "The Platform Sutra". Next, I give consideration to whether "The Platform Sutra" can be classified as a type of consequentialism when viewed in terms of the Chan Buddhist notion of instant revelation, along with the ultimate Buddhist aim of liberation from suffering and the attainment of Buddhahood. The outcome of this paper suggests that, "The Platform Sutra" offers a transcendental cognition aiming at "Nirvana" and that its central theme of "non-abiding", derived from the ethical perspective of this text which in turn is based upon both the theoretical journey of returning to mind-nature and a world view constructed around Dependent Origination and Impermanence. The theoretical journey that starts with "cognition" and culminates in "liberation" prompts an ethical pattern of autonomy, whereas the moral subject spontaneously perfects all virtues through the practical wisdom of proper conduct. When considering the ethics of "The Platform Sutra" it would be prudent to conclude only the following: when seen purely from the aspect of theoretical similarity, the ethical pattern of "The Platform Sutra" can be said to be roughly analogous to virtue ethics and consequentialism, and perhaps even to deontology. However, when the intrinsic theory of "The Platform Sutra" is taken into account, it is evident that apart from theoretical similarity, the view of differentiation still needs to be incorporated into the ethical equation of this text. The outcome of this paper suggests that, "The Platform Sutra" offers a transcendental cognition aiming at "Nirvana" and that its central theme of "non-abiding", derived from the ethical perspective of this text which in turn is based upon both the theoretical journey of returning to mind-nature and a world view constructed around Dependent Origination and Impermanence. The theoretical journey that starts with "cognition" and culminates in "liberation" prompts an ethical pattern of autonomy, whereas the moral subject spontaneously perfects all virtues through the practical wisdom of proper conduct. When considering the ethics of "The Platform Sutra" it would be prudent to conclude only the following: when seen purely from the aspect of theoretical similarity, the ethical pattern of "The Platform Sutra" can be said to be roughly analogous to virtue ethics and consequentialism, and perhaps even to deontology. However, when the intrin
目次壹、前言 75
貳、《壇經》的戒律觀所揭示的倫理思考 77
一、本文所依據的《壇經》版本 77
二、以戒律為視角出發的佛教倫理學 78
三、《壇經》之「戒律觀」 81
參、《壇經》的心性論所揭示的倫理思考 82
一、「自性」作為《壇經》的道德倫述基礎:一種世界觀所展開的倫理視角 82
二、從「自性」、「自性戒」到「無相戒」的倫理思維 85
肆、如何理解《壇經》的倫理學型態? 90
一、從「認識」而「解脫」所構築之道德自律的型態 90
二、《壇經》倫理學型態可否為德行倫理學? 91
三、《壇經》倫理學型態可否為結果主義? 93
四、《壇經》倫理學型態的多元性格 96
伍、結語 98
ISSN10158995 (P)
點閱次數317
建檔日期2016.05.18
更新日期2021.07.27










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