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論月稱利他為先的菩薩瑜伽行思想=A Study on Candrakīrti’s Thought of Bodhisattva-Yogācāra Regarding Altruism
作者 劉嘉誠 (著)=Liu, Jia-cheng (au.)
出處題名 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
卷期n.28
出版日期2017.09
頁次75 - 104
出版者玄奘大學宗教學研究所
出版者網址 http://ird.hcu.edu.tw/front/bin/home.phtml
出版地新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為法光佛教文化研究所兼任教授
關鍵詞月稱=Candrakīrti; 菩薩瑜伽行=bodhisattva-yogācāra; 利他主義=altruism; 緣起=dependent-arising; 空性=emptiness
摘要 本文從中觀學派緣起性空的二諦中道觀,探討月稱對菩薩瑜伽行的見解。首先就世間緣起有的層面,月稱將世俗諦理視為一切菩薩行的基礎,月稱對「世俗」一詞的語義解釋,隱含有月稱肯定世間知識與世間道德的義蘊,由此而透顯月稱對世間廣行積集善根的重視。在佛法的三乘行中,月稱主張利他的「菩薩行」優先於自利的二乘行,也就是說,唯有以利他的「菩薩行」為最優位,然後才能在利他中成就利己。
然而,就佛教二諦而言,世俗諦只不過是一種方便,月稱認為,佛弟子除了依世俗諦理而有廣集善根的方便,還必須在勝義上有修習深觀諸法畢竟空的智慧,也就是透過定與慧觀無我無我所,於空性修止觀雙運之「瑜伽行」,以積集智慧資糧。而菩薩於空性修「瑜伽行」時,一方面也必須要做到空性與大悲相結合,否則會很容易由觀二無我而取證涅槃,成為二乘自利的作為。因此,菩薩唯有做到空性與大悲相結合,才能不取證涅槃而恆於生死中行菩薩道以利益眾生,如此才可說善巧通達二諦,具足深廣二門的菩薩瑜伽行,終至成就佛果之目的。

This article explores Candrakīrti’s thought of bodhisattva-yogācāra from the concept of the middle way regarding dependent-arising which is emptiness of Mādhyamika. Firstly, in terms of conventional existence of the dependent-arising, Candrakīrti regards the conventional truth as the foundation for all virtues of bodhisattva. The meaning of the term “saṃvṛti”(convention) as interpreted by Candrakīrti implies conventional knowledge and moral, which in turn demonstrates the importance of the accumulation of conventional good deeds. Among the three vehicles of salvation in Buddhism, Candrakīrti believes that the altruistic bodhisattva vehicle bears priority to the other self-interested smaller vehicles; that is to say, the altruistic bodhisattva vehicle marks the supreme state in which self-interest is achieved by means of altruism.
However, Candrakīrti thinks that the conventional truth is simply convenient in the two-truths of Buddhism. He maintains that the Buddhist disciples should have the insight into the emptiness of all phenomena as the ultimate truth, after acting on the accumulation of worldly good deeds as prescribed by the conventional truth. In other words, Buddhist disciples need to contemplate non-self/ selflessness, and practice yogācāra of “calm abiding” (śamatha) and “special insight”(vipaśyanā) in emptiness to acquire merits of wisdom.
While the bodhisattva practices yogācāra in emptiness, it is still necessary to include compassion; otherwise the practitioner will aim for nirvana by means of meditating on non-self and selflessness, thus become the inferior self-interested smaller vehicle. Therefore, the supreme bodhisattva conveys a mixture of emptiness and compassion, in order to refrain from the attainment of nirvana while implementing virtues of the bodhisattva in the cycle of existence to benefit all beings. To sum up, the bodhisattva will be one who excels in two-truths and reaches bodhisattva-yogācāra through two means broad and deep. This is crucial to become a Buddha.
目次一、前言 78
二、世俗諦理作為菩薩行的基礎 79
(一)對世間知識的肯定 84
(二)對世間道德的肯定 88
三、從緣起性空所展開的菩薩瑜伽行 94
四、結論 100
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
點閱次數21
建檔日期2020.03.18
更新日期2020.03.18










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