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窺基《說無垢稱經疏》的解經方法與羅什本詮釋傳統的衝突與融攝=Conflict and Coherence in the Interpretation of Kuiji's (632-682) Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu
作者 郭朝順 (著)=Kuo, Chao-shun (au.)
出處題名 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
卷期n.1 新4卷
出版日期2018.01
頁次183 - 235
出版者佛光大學佛教研究中心
出版地宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為佛光大學佛教學系教授
關鍵詞窺基=Kuiji; 《說無垢稱經疏》=Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu; 空理義=kongli doctrine; 應理義=yingli doctrine; 菩薩行=bodhisattva practice
摘要 窺基的《說無垢稱經疏》(一名:《說無垢稱經贊述》)放棄許多羅什本的理解傳統中的概念與架構,改以菩薩之境行果為釋經之主軸。這是他引用唯識學派的經論,特別是識轉變說,以闡明《說無垢稱經》〈序品〉中菩薩為了攝持眾生而建立佛土的思想,以及如來身土的隱現與淨穢問題,並以〈序品〉的菩薩行思想為全經之理解與詮釋架構。
然而,窺基的《說無垢稱經疏》在歷來《維摩經》的釋經傳統中,並未受到重視及發揚,固然是因為羅什本流傳廣大且依據羅什的譯本所建構的詮釋傳統早已深植人心。但就另一方面來看則是,關於經中的義理,窺基提出應理義與空理義的說法,並結合三教八宗的判教思想,以突顯空理義應朝向應理義發展的觀點,但其詮釋策略並不成功。這也是由於《維摩經》自身經義的性空思想之特色是不可能忽略的,因此窺基便不得不以空理義與應理義並陳的方式來釋經,展現其融攝羅什本詮釋傳統的釋經立場。
但空理義與應理義並非對立,廣義的應理義含括如來藏與唯識學,羅什本的詮釋傳統本不限於中觀學空理義(如天台、三論偏向中觀),也有相當程度的如來藏思想的因素於其中(如慧遠即偏向如來藏),致使窺基在《維摩經》的詮釋上,未能突顯狹義之應理義—護法唯識學—為唯一且最高的理解。《說無垢稱經疏》所能達成的,是根據玄奘譯本突顯《說無垢稱經》之菩薩行的次第因果的說法,並補充唯識學的身土變現說法,還有便是肯定語言等世法的價值,指出中觀學過於快速捨棄諸法只以畢竟空境界為究竟的缺點,但這些終究不可能將《說無垢稱經》解釋成一種徹底的唯識學的經典,因此也就無法撼動依羅什本所成立的《維摩經》詮釋傳統。

Kuiji’s Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu is a commentary on Xuanzang’s translation of the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa, and therefore differs from commentaries based on Kumārajīva’s translation. Kuiji abandoned the conceptual structure in Kumārajīva’s hermeneutic tradition to interpret Xuanzang’s translation of the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa, instead shifting to bodhisattva practice as its interpretative axis. In addition, Kuiji uses the Yogācāra theory of vijñapti to explain the qualities and causation of Buddha lands. He emphasizes the importance of chapter one, the preface, especially focusing on the dialogue of Buddha lands.
However, Kuiji’s Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu never overtakes Kumārajīva’s tradition, not only because Kumārajīva’s translation had long been widely accepted by Chinese Buddhists, but also because of Kuiji’s interpretative strategy. Kuiji’s doctrinal classification, which follows the three sequential teachings in the Sandhinirmocana Sūtra, claims kongli 空理 and yingli 應理 doctrines are the two main systems in Mahāyāna. Kongli doctrine includes the madhyamaka of Bhavyaviveka, and yingli doctrine includes the Yogācāra of Dharmapāla and Yogācāra including tathāgatagarbha. People could not deny that the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa includes much kongli thought, but Kumārajīva’s tradition also uses tathāgatagarbha in its explanations.
Kuiji emphasized yingli over kongli in his interpretation by including both kongli and yingli in his Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu. Kuiji’s original purpose is to emphasize the Yogācāra of Dharmapāla as a new and better approach for understanding and interpreting the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa, but he could not separate the tathāgatagarbha from Yogācāra or displace Kumārajīva’s tradition from the mainstream in Chinese Buddhism.
Nevertheless, Kuiji’s Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu has its own value which can not be reduced to Kumārajīva’s tradition. Its claims about the relative truth of language and the ordinary world, and its emphasis on graduated bodhisattva practice are unique, different from the mādhyamaka focus on śūnyata. In short, Kuiji tried to save the ordinary world, but he still could not overcome Kumārajīva’s exegetical tradition.
目次一、問題提出 187
二、由窺基《說無垢稱經疏》的科判看其解經特色 189
(一)窺基《說無垢稱經疏》之科判 189
1.經起所因(《大正藏》冊 38,993b-998b) 189
2.經之宗緒(998b-1000b) 190
3.明經體性(1000b-1001c) 191
4.敘經不同(1001c-1002c) 192
5.科品所從(1002c-1003a) 192
6.釋本文義(1003a-1114) 192
(二)窺基《說無垢稱經疏》隨文釋篇幅 194
(三)窺基《說無垢稱經疏》之科判與羅什本義理主題歸納之對比 195
(四)經題譯名的解釋及人法雙標的解經模式之改變 198
三、窺基《說無垢稱經疏》的教相思想及其釋經開展 199
(一)菩薩乘的欣厭及身土觀 199
(二)三教八宗的教相判釋 206
四、以清辨(空理義)及護法(應理義)合觀的詮釋策略 214
(一)空理義與應理義並陳的理由 214
(二)空理義與應理義並陳的解釋 217
1.〈聲聞品〉:第 29 條 223
2.〈菩薩品〉:第 1, 4 條 224
3.〈問疾品〉:第 3,12,19 條 225
3.〈觀如來品〉:第 13 條 229
五、結論:《說無垢稱經疏》的詮釋學反省 230
ISSN24143006 (P)
點閱次數41
建檔日期2020.04.13
更新日期2020.04.13










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