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真心與妄心 ── 聖嚴法師何以接受澫益智旭的天台學?=True Mind and Deluded Mind: How the Chan Master Sheng Yen (1930-2009) Accepted the Tiantai Buddhism by Ouyi Zhixu (1599-1655)?
作者 郭朝順 (著)=Kuo, Chao-shun (au.)
出處題名 聖嚴研究:第十二輯=Studies of Master Sheng Yen Vol.12
出版日期2019.08
頁次63 - 116
出版者法鼓文化
出版者網址 http://www.ddc.com.tw/
出版地臺北, 臺灣 [Taipei, Taiwan]
叢書名聖嚴思想論叢
叢書號12
資料類型專題研究論文=Research Paper
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者單位:佛光大學佛教學系教授=Fo Guang University Department of Buddhist Studies, Professor
關鍵詞圭峰宗密=Guifeng Zongmi; 永明延壽=Yongming Yanshou; 澫益智旭=Ouyi Zhixu; 聖嚴法師=Chan Master Sheng Yen; 真心=True Mind; 妄心=Deluded Mind; 一念心=Mind in One Moment
摘要唐代華嚴宗祖師也是荷澤宗宗師的宗密(780-841)倡禪教一致,建立依《圓覺經》與《大乘起信論》為主的靈知真心心性本體論形上學體系,同時也以此開啟了三教會通的理論,對後世儒佛思想影響至鉅。宗密的思想除影響後來的禪宗之心性思想都以真心說為正解外,也對永明延壽(905-976)及天台山外派都有重要的影響。
明代蕅益智旭(1599-1655)深受永明延壽的影響,重新注意到天台思想的價值,同時也深受延壽會通天台、華嚴、禪、淨土乃至密教思想的影響,在明代佛教中展現出另一個佛教會通思想的高峰。智旭是聖嚴法師博士論文《明末中國佛教之研究》的核心對象,觀察聖嚴法師的著作及行誼也可看到智旭對他的深刻影響,聖嚴法師為智旭的《教觀綱宗》作註的《天台心鑰 ── 教觀綱宗貫註》,也顯示聖嚴法師對天台學之重視。
然而聖嚴法師所接受的天台學是哪種形式的天台學?依山家、山外的爭議即有真心系與妄心系之爭,從思想史的角度來看,永明延壽曾經影響山外派的出現,但他自己已經企圖融攝諸家的心思想而成立「心宗」的概念,智旭踵繼延壽同樣採取會通的方式解決這個爭議;就禪宗思想而言,一般認為禪思想的兩大來源是如來藏真心思想與般若思想兩大主流,天台之妄心說並不納入禪宗的思想脈絡中。但是聖嚴卻接受智旭吸收自天台的現前一念心思想,而將之納入自己的法鼓禪法之中,天台之一念心本非真心也非妄心,聖嚴法師將天台與自己禪法結合的理由是否充分,此為本文所要討論的議題。

Guifeng Zongmi (780-841) was a Buddhist scholar who deeply affected by both Chan and Huayan in Tang Dynasty; he was installed as the fifth patriarch of Huayan as well as a patriarch of Heze School of Southern Chan for his integrating Chan and Huayan teaching.
Zongmi’s True Mind Ontology has dominated following interpretation of Chan Buddhism Yongming Yanshou (905-976) in Five Dynasties and though Yanshou affecting Shanwai School of Tiantai Buddhism in Song Dynasty, until Ouyi Zhixu (1599-1655). Zhixu accepted Yanshou’s integrating thoughts which integrates Tiantai, Huayan, Chan, Pure Land and Secret Buddhism as one, Zhixu who was also one of the integrating Buddhism scholars in Ming Dynasty, made a book to include basic thoughts of Tiantai buddhism: Essence of Teaching and Meditation (Jiao Guan Gang Zong) which Chan Master Sheng Yen has made a commentary to it: The Key of Mind of Tiantai Buddhism: A Integrating Commentary of Essence of Teaching and Meditation. Zhixu was also the topic of Ph.D dissertation of Chan Master Sheng Yen. We can find obviously affection of Zhixu by different kinds of works of Sheng Yen.
Along long periods of Chinese Buddhist philosophy of Mind, there are so many complicate problems among Tiantai, Huayan, Chan, Pure Land, even Yanshou and Zhixu had ever tried to solve, but they really finish it? Thus, this paper want to ask and answer two questions above: Why Sheng Yen accepted the Tiantai Buddhism by Zhixu in his Fagu (Dharma Drumb) Chan Buddhism? And how did Sheng Yen solve the inconsistent of mind theory between Tiantai and Chan?
目次一、聖嚴法師對智旭的理解與容受 65
(一)聖嚴法師對天台學的看法 65
(二)聖嚴法師對智旭天台學的理解與吸收 67
二、延壽、智旭「心宗」思想脈絡之追溯 74
(一)天台、華嚴與禪宗的「心」思想 75
1. 天台與華嚴思想的交涉 75
2. 禪宗「心」思想與修持法門的開展 82
(二)從宗密、延壽到智旭 88
三、聖嚴禪思想與智旭天台學的現前一念心 99
(一)聖嚴禪思想所預設的心性思想 99
(二)聖嚴禪法觀心法門的開展 103
四、結論 106
(一)天台以降的圓教與諸宗會通之成就與理想 106
(二)《起信論》、《圓覺經》、《楞嚴經》一 系以心性哲學為中心的會通思想 107
(三)人間淨土意義下的禪淨雙修 108
參考文獻 112
英文摘要 115
點閱次數9
建檔日期2021.08.26
更新日期2021.08.26










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