Liang Wudi attempted to enforce the reformation of the Ancestral Shrine in 507 (Tianjian 6) or 508 (Tianjian 7). At that time, his vassals called him a “Gold Wheel-turning King” (the highest of the four ranks of Buddhism’s ideal kings). This is the starting point of his image of the ideal emperor.
The Zhujiedapinxu, written by Liang Wudi in 512 (Tianjian 11), shows influence from the Sutra for Humane Kings. In this treatise, the Gold Wheel-turning King and the Iron Wheel-turning King (the lowest of the four ranks) play a major role in the world of the human being. Since Sengmin and Fayun collaborated in composing a commentary on the Sutra for Humane Kings in 507 or 508, Liang Wudi may have taken the viewpoint of that sutra into consideration.
Baochang, in accordance with an edict from Liang Wudi, edited the Jinglü yixiang in 516 (Tianjian 15). This Buddhist encyclopedia describes two kinds of Buddhist kings: the Bodhisattva King and the Śrāvaka King. Based on the Jinglü yixiang, Liang Wudi is classified as Bodhisattva King and a Gold Wheel-turning King, while King Aśoka is classified as Śrāvaka King and Iron Wheel-turning King. Thus Liang Wudi placed himself in a higher rank than Aśoka.
Around 522 (Putong 3), Liang Wudi carried out a Buddhist memorial service, declaring prohibitions on drinking alcohol and eating meat. On this occasion he proposed the carrying out of lectures on the Nirvana Sutra, Sutra for Humane Kings and Golden Light Sutra. He started to assert that the Gold Light Sutra was similar the Sutra for Humane Kings. In the Putong era (520–527), Liang Wudi attempted to regulate Buddhist monks, and in countering opposition from Zhizang, he based his arguments on the Sutra for Humane Kings. During the same era, Guo Zushen presented his opinions to Liang Wudi, criticizing the management of the Buddhist saṅgha, concretely mentioning Sengmin and Fayun. The citizens of the Putong era may have believed that Liang Wudi was a Bodhisattva King and a Gold Wheel-turning King.
Liang Wudi inherited the faith of Aśoka from Xiao Ziliang and Sengyou. By his promoting this faith, many Buddhist believers gradually accepted the apotheosis of Liang Wudi. Between 541 (Datong 7) and 546 (Zhongdatong 1), the 6th prince of Liang Wudi, Xiao Lun wrote an essay in which he called his father an Bodhisattva Emperor and Gold Wheel-turning King. Liang Wudi studied the doctrine of the major Buddhist scriptures and tried to realize the ideal world according to their mythology.
はじめに 3 一 梁武帝と金輪王─天監六年・七年以降の認識─ 4 ① 天監六年または天監七年の事例 4 ② 天監十七年の事例 6 ③ 大通三年以前の事例 7 ④ 中大通四年の事例 8 ⑤ 中大通五年の事例 9 ⑥ 年代不明の事例 9 二 梁武帝と『仁王般若経』における金輪王─天監十一年頃の認識─ 10 三 『経律異相』における菩薩と金輪王─天監十五年の認識─ 14 四 菩薩金輪王としての梁武帝─天監十八年の菩薩戒受戒と普通年間の事跡─ 16 ① 『断酒肉文』法会の実施─普通三年頃の事跡─ 17 ② 白衣僧正論争─普通三年以前の事跡─ 20 ③ 郭祖深の上奏文─普通四年または五年の事跡─ 21 五 梁武帝が生きた時代における阿育王信仰─鉄輪王に対する信仰─ 22 ①『冥祥記』に見える阿育王信仰 22 ② 蕭子良の阿育王信仰 23 ③ 僧祐の阿育王信仰 23 ④ 陶弘景の阿育王信仰 24 六 「金輪王」梁武帝と「鉄輪王」阿育王 25 ① 梁武帝と『阿育王経』・『経律異相』 25 ② 梁武帝と阿育王寺 27 ③ 蕭綸の上奏文に見える「金輪」・「皇帝菩薩」 28 おわりに 29 註 30 略号 31 参考文献 31