Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

gahakāraka diṭṭho'si puna gehaṃ na kāhasi

sabbā te phāsukā bhaggā gahakūṭaṃ visaṅkhataṃ

visaṅkhāragataṃ cittaṃ taṇhānaṃ khayam ajjhagā

(DhP 154)

Sentence Translation:

Oh, house-builder, you are seen! You will not build this house again!
All your ribs are broken; the roof is destroyed.
My mind is dissolute; I have attained the end of all cravings.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

gaha+kāraka   diṭṭho         asi      puna gehaṃ  na    kāhasi
|            |            |               |          |         |        |         |
N.m.  N.m.    Adj.m.    V.act.in. Adv.   N.m.  neg.  V.act.
|       Voc.Sg. Nom.Sg. 2.Sg.pres.   |    Acc.Sg.   |    2.Sg.fut.
|_______|           |_________|         |         |         |_____|
      |_______________|                 |_____|________|

List of Abbreviations

sabbā         te      phāsukā  bhaggā gaha+kūṭaṃ visaṅkhataṃ
|                  |             |            |         |         |             |
Adj.f.     Pron.m.    N.f.      Adj.f.  N.m.  N.n.       Adj.n.
Nom.Pl. Gen.Sg. Nom.Pl. Nom.Pl.   |    Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.
|                  |_______|             |        |_____|              |
|______________|                   |             |__________|

List of Abbreviations

visaṅkhāra+gataṃ    cittaṃ   taṇhānaṃ khayam  ajjhagā
|                     |             |             |             |             |
N.m.          Adj.n.      N.n.       N.f.        N.m.     V.act.
|               Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Gen.Pl.    Acc.Sg. 1.Sg.aor.
|____________|            |             |________|            |
           |_____________|                    |___________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

gahakāraka: gahakāraka-, N.m.: house-builder, house-maker. It is a metaphor for thirst or craving that is the maker of the "house", or in other words of the living being. It is a compound of:
    gaha-, N.m.: house.
    kāraka-, N.m.: doer, maker. It is derived from the verb kar-, to do.
Voc.Sg. = gahakāraka.

diṭṭha-, Adj.: seen. It is a p.p. of the verb root dis- (to see). Nom.Sg.m. = diṭṭho.

asi, V.: [you] are. The verb root is as- (to be). 2.Sg.act.in.pres. = asi.
Euphonic combination: diṭṭho + asi = diṭṭho'si.

puna, Adv.: again.

gehaṃ: geha-, N.m.: house (another spelling of gaha-, N.m.). Acc.Sg. = gehaṃ.

na, neg.: not.

List of Abbreviations

kāhasi, V.: [you] will do. The verb root is kar- (to do). 2.Sg.act.fut. = kāhasi.

sabbā: sabba-, Adj.: all, every. Nom.Pl.f. = sabbā.

te: tvaṃ, Pron.: you. Gen.Sg. = te.

phāsukā: phāsukā-, N.f.: rib. Nom.Pl. = phāsukā.

bhaggā: bhagga-, Adj.: broken. It is a p.p. of the verb root bhañj- (to break). Nom.Pl.f. = bhaggā.

gahakūṭaṃ: gahakūṭa-, N.n.: top of the house, roof. It is a compound of:
    gaha-, N.m.: house.
    kūṭa-, N.n.: top, highest point, peak.
Nom.Sg. = gahakūṭaṃ.

visaṅkhataṃ: visaṅkhata-, Adj.: destroyed, annihilated. It is a p.p. of the verb root kar- (to do) with the prefixes sam- (together) and vi- (separation, dis-). Nom.Sg.n. = visaṅkhataṃ.

List of Abbreviations

visaṅkhāragataṃ: visaṅkhāragata-, Adj.: dissolute, annihilated. Lit. "gone into dissolution". It is a compound of:
    visaṅkhāra-, N.m.: dissolution, annihilation. It is a noun derived from the verb root kar- with the prefixes sam- and vi-. See above under visaṅkhataṃ.
    gata-, Adj.: gone. It is a p.p. of the verb root gam- (to go).
Nom.Sg.n. = visaṅkhāragataṃ.

cittaṃ: citta-, N.n.: mind. Nom.Sg. = cittaṃ.

taṇhānaṃ: taṇhā-, N.f.: thirst, craving. Gen.Pl. = taṇhānaṃ.

khayam: khaya-, N.m.: destruction, dissolution, end. Acc.Sg. = khayam.

ajjhagā, V.: [I] attained, found, acquired. The verb root is gam- (to go) with the prefix adhi- (to, into). 1.Sg.act.aor. = ajjhagā.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of six syntactically separate sentences. They are:
    1) gahakāraka diṭṭho'si (oh, house-builder, you are seen). The subject of this sentence is the compound gahakāraka (oh, house-builder, vocative singular). The verb is asi ([you] are, 2nd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It has an attribute, the past participle diṭṭho (seen, nominative singular).
    2) puna gehaṃ na kāhasi (you will not build this house again). The subject is omitted; the verb implies the second person singular pronoun. The verb is kāhasi ([you] will do, 2nd person, singular, active, future). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). It has an attribute, the adverb puna (again). The object is the noun gehaṃ (house, accusative singular).
    3) sabbā te phāsukā bhaggā (all your ribs are broken). The subject is the noun phāsukā (ribs, nominative plural). It has two attributes, the pronoun te (your, genitive singular) and the adjective sabbā (all, nominative plural). The object is the adjective bhaggā (broken, nominative plural). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be".
    4) gahakūṭaṃ visaṅkhataṃ (the roof is destroyed). The subject is the compound gahakūṭaṃ (roof, nominative singular). The verb "to be" is omitted. The object is the past participle visaṅkhataṃ (destroyed, nominative singular).
    5) visaṅkhāragataṃ cittaṃ (my mind is dissolute). The noun cittaṃ (mind, nominative singular) forms the subject of this sentence. The object is the compound visaṅkhāragataṃ (dissolute, nominative singular). The verb "to be" is omitted.
    6) taṇhānaṃ khayam ajjhagā (I have attained the end of all cravings). The subject is omitted; the verb implies the first person singular pronoun. The verb is ajjhagā ([I] have attained, 1st person, singular, active, aorist). The object is the noun khayam (end, accusative singular) with its attribute, the noun taṇhānaṃ (of cravings, genitive plural).


    The story for this verse is identical with the story for the preceding one (DhP 153). It forms a part of the first utterance of the new Buddha (The Awakened One) just after he reached the Awakenment. He addressed the "builder" of his personality, the cravings. He finally understood that the craving is the main factor in the repeated rebirth. He destroyed "the ribs" or body of the craving and also "the roof of the house" or the reason for the round of repeated existence. His mind became dissolute, or in other words, he has reached the Nirvana. He has attained the end of all cravings and thus the end of the round of rebirth.

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Sentence pronunciation

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