Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
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usabhaṃ pavaraṃ vīraṃ mahesiṃ vijitāvinaṃ

anejaṃ nhātakaṃ buddhaṃ tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ

(DhP 422)

Sentence Translation:

Who is strong, noble, a hero, a great seer, victorious,
free from craving, his task finished and is awakened - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

usabhaṃ pavaraṃ vīraṃ mahā+isiṃ vijitāvinaṃ
|                   |           |         |        |           |
N.m.       Adj.m.    N.m.  Adj.  N.m.   Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.   |   Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.
|                   |           |         |_____|          |

List of Abbreviations

anejaṃ nhātakaṃ buddhaṃ  tam         ahaṃ     brūmi   brāhmaṇaṃ
|                  |              |           |               |             |              |
Adj.m    Adj.m.      Adj.m.  Pron.m.    Pron.    V.act.in.    N.m.
Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.     Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
|__________|________|           |               |             |              |
______|___________________|               |             |              |
                                                             |     |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

usabhaṃ: usabha-, N.m.: bull (as a symbol of strength). Acc.Sg. = usabhaṃ.

pavaraṃ: pavara-, Adj.: excellent, noble. Acc.Sg.m. = pavaraṃ.

vīraṃ: vīra-, N.m.: hero. Acc.Sg. = vīraṃ.

mahesiṃ: mahesi-, N.m.: great seer. It is a compound of:
    mahant-, Adj.: big, great. The compound form is mahā-.
    isi-, N.m.: seer.
Euphonic combination: mahā- + isi- = mahesi-.
Acc.Sg. = mahesiṃ.

vijitāvinaṃ: vijitāvin-, Adj.: victorious. It is derived from the verb root ji- (to conquer, to win) with the strengthening prefix vi-. Acc.Sg.m. = vijitāvinaṃ.

anejaṃ: aneja-, Adj.: free from craving. It is the word ejā-, N.f.: craving, negated by the negative prefix -an. Acc.Sg.m. = anejaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

nhātakaṃ: nhātaka-, N.m.: one who is perfect in the Buddha's teaching. Lit. "one who has bathed." In traditional Vedic religion this means a young man who has finished his studies and taken a ritual bath. In Buddhism the meaning is changed into "who completed his study [of the Dharma]." Acc.Sg. = nhātakaṃ.

buddhaṃ: buddha-, Adj.: Awakened, Enlightened. It is a pp. of the verb root budh-, to awaken. Acc.Sg.m.: buddhaṃ.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaṃ, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaṃ.

brūmi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is brū-. 1.Sg.act.in.pres. = brūmi.

brāhmaṇaṃ: brāhmaṇa-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brāhmaṇaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the pronoun ahaṃ (I, nominative singular). The verb is brūmi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brāhmaṇaṃ (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has nine attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular), the nouns usabhaṃ (bull, accusative singular), vīraṃ (hero, accusative singular), mahesiṃ (great seer, accusative singular), nhātakaṃ (task finished, accusative singular) and the adjectives pavaraṃ (noble, accusative singular), vijitāvinaṃ (victorious, accusative singular), anejaṃ (free from craving, accusative singular) and buddhaṃ (awakened, accusative singular).


    The Kinf Pasenadi and Queen Mallikā once gave alms to the Buddha and Community. The offering was done on a big scale. There was an elephant holding an umbrella over each monk. Because there were many monks, one untrained elephant had to be used. He held an umbrella over Venerable Aṅgulimāla. Everybody was afraid that something would happen; however nothing did.
    Later, other monks asked Aṅgulimāla if he was scared at that time. He replied that he was not, since he was an Arahant. The Buddha then confirmed Aṅgulimāla's attainment with this verse.

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