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張湛的心性理論 -- 無想境界與無心工夫=Zhang Zhan's Theory of Mind and Nature: State of No Thoughts and Cultivation of No Mind
Author 謝如柏 (著)=Shie, Ru-bo (au.)
Source 臺大中文學報=Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature N.T.U.
Volumen.44
Date2014.03
Pages1 - 42
Publisher國立臺灣大學中國文學系
Publisher Url http://www.cl.ntu.edu.tw/riki/riki.php?CID=1
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword魏晉玄學=Wei-Jin mysterious learning; 才性論=theory of talent and nature; 郭象=Guo Xiang; 康僧會=Kang Seng-Hui; 六朝佛教=Buddhism of the Six Dynasties; Neo-Daoism
Abstract   本文分析張湛之心性理論,指出:(1)張湛認為,只有至純至真的氣性才是群生之性。「性」具有價值意義,必須透過「心」之虛靜修養工夫,才能保全此性。(2)「心」乃是形氣中之經驗心,但以寂然無想為本然狀態。心作為實踐主體,可能被「意」以及衍生之情欲、智巧所擾亂,也可以透過工夫回到本然寂然之境。(3)無心、忘之虛靜境界,便是「心」之本然樣態,也就是修養之工夫。意與智、欲之排遣,都必須在此無心忘境中實現。(4)無心境界可以透過「神」、「神明」來表述。達至神心境界者,便是聖人;凡人雖不能徹底無心,卻能透過聖人之陶運趨向無心而自得其性。整體而言,張湛的心性理論仍是魏晉玄學的產物,但其心之觀念可能受到佛教影響。

This article analyzes Zhang Zhan's theory of xin 'mind' and xing 'nature,' and generalizes four points as follows. 1. Zhang Zhan believes that only the purist and truest nature of qi is the nature of all human beings. Nature is valuable and meaningful; to preserve it, one has to cultivate his/her mind into emptiness and tranquility. 2. Mind is constructed with experience, yet its original state is no thoughts. As the first cause of all movements, mind can be obstructed by conceptual consciousness and its derivatives, lust and cunning, and it can also return to its original state through cultivation. 3. No mind, or the empty and tranquil state of forgetting, is mind's original state and the method of cultivation. Only in this state can conceptual consciousness, cunning, and lust be eliminated. 4. State of no mind can be interpreted with shen or shen-ming 'divine understanding.' One who achieves the mind of shen is a saint. It is hard for ordinary people to achieve the state of no mind, but they can approach this state and retrieve their nature if cultivated by saints. In conclusion, Zhang Zhan's theory of mind and nature is a product of Neo-Daoism, but his concept of mind is probably influenced by Buddhism.
ISSN10132422 (P)
Hits440
Created date2015.01.29
Modified date2022.08.04



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