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An Exploration of Two Sanskrit Issues on Chinese and English Renditions of Buddhist Scriptures: Using “The Dharma of Emancipation of the Exhaustible and Inexhaustible” in the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra as an Example=從梵文翻譯漢英佛典兩個問題之初探:以維摩詰所說經中闡釋「有盡無盡解脫法門」為例
Author 鄭鳳姬 (著)=Cheng, Fung-Kei (au.)
Source 2013東亞佛教思想文化國際學術研討會
Date2013.11.09
Publisher國立臺灣大學文學院佛學研究中心、哲學系
Publisher Url http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~d01124001/2013eastasianbuddhism/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者單位:香港大學博士生
Keyworddestructible; exhaustible=有盡; indestructible; inexhaustible=無盡; Mahāyāna=大乘; translation=翻譯; Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra摩詰所說經
AbstractThe aims of the current research are as follows: first, review the challenges of rendering Buddhist texts into Chinese and English through the study of the passage “the dharma of emancipation of the exhaustible and inexhaustible”, as articulated in the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra; and second, discuss the scholarly argument by which these Chinese and English translations could have originated from different Sanskrit or Tibetan editions. This study tabulates the three full classical Chinese translations and five English editions, among which are included in the Chinese renditions the works of Zhi Qian (the third century A.D.), Kumārajīva (the fifth century A.D.), and Xuan Zang (the seventh century A.D.); and the English versions translated by Luk, Watson, McRae, Lamotte/Boin, and Thurman between the 1970s and the 2000s. The former three English translations were mainly based on Kumārajīva’s edition and the latter two on the Tibetan copy, illustrating a three-tier translation hierarchy in which the Chinese translations represent the first-tier, being directly translated from the Sanskrit original(s); the English renditions represent the second-tier, stemming from either Kumārajīva’s or the Tibetan edition; and with the third-tier represented by Boin’s translation of Lamotte’s French copy into English. By comparing their chaptering, chapter titles, transliteration of Buddhist terminology, translation of the passage, punctuation, linguistic expressions, and missing parts in each edition, this analysis unveils the intra- and inter-differences between the Chinese and English renditions. Prior research results suggest that it is difficult to evaluate the credibility and validity of the translations because of the uncertainties related to the origin of the text. They have also addressed the fact that the translation discrepancies in Buddhist terminology in English might create a risk of misinterpretation of Buddhist teachings. Conclusively, this research first substantiates recent discussion on directly using Sanskrit terminology, instead of the English terms, in modern English Buddhist publications; and second agrees that the renditions probably came from different Sanskrit or Tibetan originals. Importantly, it equally values the academic contributions of individual Chinese and English renditions and translators; thus proposing cross-reference among various renditions as a means to inspire researchers with insight from different translations.

本研究以維摩詰所說經中「有盡無盡解脫法門」一節為例子,旨在:其一、檢視有關漢英佛典翻譯的挑戰,其二、舉例討論漢英譯本非源於相同的梵文或藏文本的疑竇。本文並列現存三套完整的古中譯本和五本英譯版,漢古文本包括公元三世紀完成的支謙本,五世紀的鳩摩羅什版和七世紀的玄奘法師作品。英語版有Luk、Watson、McRae、Lamotte/Boin及Thurman的譯作,其譯成時期為上世紀七十年代至二十一世紀初;前三者主要根據鳩摩羅什的中譯本,後二者則以西藏本為主。從中英譯本中可以窺視三層翻譯次第:漢譯本直接取源於梵本,此謂第一梯次的譯本;英譯本有從鳩摩羅什漢本或藏本翻譯成的,視為第二梯次的譯本;而Boin依據Lamotte的法文本譯成的英語本,可說是第三梯次的譯本。經分析和比較後,展示分章、章目、佛學詞彙翻譯、章節文的翻譯、標點符號、語言表達和缺失部分,各本的異同,顯示出漢文本之間、英文本之間和漢英本之間都有差異,也各有缺損的部分,從而推斷漢文本可能不是出於同一的梵文經,採用藏文本的英語版也可能不是源於相同的藏文本;所以,很難評論個別譯本的準確程度。另一個值得關注的是:在英文譯本中,不同的翻譯者對佛學詞彙的翻譯各異,這種混亂容易造成對佛教教義有不完整的詮釋,甚至產生誤解。因此,第一、本文贊成英文的佛學著作直接採用梵文詞彙,而不需要翻成英語用詞;第二、本文認為那些譯本極可能源於不同的梵文或藏文原本;此外,本文提議學者可以交互參照各漢英譯本,從不同的譯作中獲得更豐富、更精辟的洞見。
Table of contentsIntroduction
Chaptering and Chapter Title
Translation of Key Buddhist Terminology in the Passage
Translation of the Passage
Discussion and Implications
Bases of the Renditions
Punctuation
Understanding and Interpretation
Linguistic Expressions
Buddhist Terminology
Conclusion
References:
Buddhist canons
Sources cited
Hits1211
Created date2015.10.21



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