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行雲自在 ─ 夏荊山〈白衣觀音〉對南宋牧谿畫作的承繼與開拓=The Unstrained - Inheriting and Exploring Song Muqi's Paintings in the Southern Song Dynasty by Xia Jing Shan's 'White-robed Guan Yin'
Author 吳蕙君 (著)=Wu, Hui-chun (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.4
Date2017.09
Pages85 - 108
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為世新大學中文研究所博士生、兼任講師
Keyword夏荊山=Xia Jing Shan; 白衣觀音=white-robed Guan Yin (Avalokiteśvara); 牧谿=Muqi; 禪宗=Zen Buddhism
Abstract 夏荊山居士於1950年,拜南亭法師為師,皈依佛門,發願將此身心奉獻於佛陀,潛心於佛法,廣行菩薩道。觀看夏居士的畫作,佛像繪畫占很大的比重,應與夏居士在1988年,體會到佛像微妙之境,發願餘生只畫殊勝的佛像畫有很大的關聯。在夏居士眾多的佛像畫中,觀音佛畫最多,幾達三十多件,工筆、水墨、白描畫法兼有,觀音的造像也呈現諸多樣貌,有:一葉、水月、紅竹、蓮花、白衣、禪定、童子拜觀音等。其中題名為〈白衣觀音〉,或以白衣觀音與吉祥圖案的組合有非常多件,夏居士〈白衣觀音〉與南宋牧谿〈白衣觀音〉的造像頗有異曲同工之妙。
〈白衣觀音〉在禪宗繪畫上,是一幅重要的畫像,常以水墨技法表現,歷來繪白衣觀音佛像所在多有,至南宋牧谿始有開創,吳大素評此畫:「意思簡當,不費妝綴。」若說牧谿〈白衣觀音〉展現的是一種率真、簡逸豪放、自然清靜,擺脫形似束縛的美感。那麼夏居士沿用著牧谿白衣觀音的造形,更加展現觀音的慈悲、智慧,以及精緻凝寂的美感。
本文擬從傳移摹寫、骨法用筆和傳神寫意三方面,探討夏居士〈白衣觀音〉對牧谿白衣觀音造像的承繼與開拓,並藉由白衣觀音的畫作,體察夏居士如何展現「佛法在世間,不離世間覺」的菩薩道。

Xia Jing Shan became a Buddhist lay disciple under Dharma Master Nanting in 1950 and vowed to dedicate his body and mind to Buddhism by devoting to Buddhist teachings and following the Bodhisattva way of life. Buddhist portraits take up a big part of Xia Jing Shan's painting oeuvre. He came to the realization in 1988 of the subtleties and the refinements in Buddhist portraits, and resolved to dedicate the remainder of his life to painting Buddhist portraits. Portraits of Guan Yin (Avalokiteśvara) take up the largest portion of Xia's oeuvre of Buddhist portraits, consisting of over 30 pieces spanning across different genres including gongbi (a realist fine-brush technique in Chinese painting), ink wash painting, and line drawing. Guan Yin is also depicted in many different ways in Xia's paintings, including Guan Yin on one leaf, water-moon Guan Yin, red bamboo Guan Yin, white-robed Guan Yin, meditating Guan Yin, and boy worshipping Guan Yin, etc. He created several paintings based on the theme White-robed Guan Yin or the white-robed Guan Yin combined with other auspicious images. Moreover, Xia's White-robed Guan Yin shares many similarities with Muqi's White-Robed Guan Yin painted in the Southern Song dynasty.
The white-robed Guan Yin is an important portrait in Zen Buddhist paintings, and is often created using Chinese ink painting techniques. There have been many white-robed Guan Yin portraits painted throughout history, and Muqi of Southern Song dynasty's rendition marked the beginning of innovative, unique approach to the subject matter. "It is simple in meaning and without superfluous embellishment," commented Yuan dynasty artist Wu Dasu on the painting. If the aesthetic expressed in Muqi's White-robed Guan Yin is one that is earnest, simple yet bold, natural, tranquil, and unbounded, Xia's portrayal, although follows the style of Muqi's rendition, shows more of Guan Yin's compassionate and wise qualities, with an aesthetic that is refined and concentrated.
Based on the three aspects of tracing and imitating, skeletal patterning using brush, and realistic and freehand brushwork, this essay explores how Xia's White-robed Guan Yin inherited and expanded from Muqi's rendition, further examining how through his painting of the Avalokiteśvara in the white robe Xia demonstrates the Bodhisattva way of life: "Buddha Dharma exists for the world, apart from this world, there is no enlightenment."
Table of contents壹、前言 88
貳、早期經典對「白衣觀音」圖像的論述 89
一、佛典中的「白衣觀音」90
二、文人畫中的「白衣觀音」92
參、文人畫的範型──牧谿的「白衣觀音」92
肆、夏荊山〈白衣觀音〉造像的探討 96
一、「傳模移寫」──承繼牧谿「白衣觀音」的造形 97
二、「傳神寫意」──夏荊山「白衣觀音」的開創 99
(一) 意境的追求 100
(二) 骨法用筆 102
(三) 以佛典入畫 104
伍、結論 106
ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits52
Created date2018.09.03
Modified date2020.06.15



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