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佛教禪宗與書法 — 禪思神融會書法表現之探討=Zen Buddhism and Calligraphy: On Zen Spirit-Integrated Calligraphic Expressions
Author 蔡介騰 (著)=Tsai, Chieh-teng (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.5
Date2018.03
Pages23 - 49
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為國立臺灣藝術大學書畫學系專任教授
Keyword禪學=Zen teachings; 禪意=Zen ideas; 書風=calligraphy style; 書法=calligraphy
Abstract 在佛教的發展過程中,書法的表現有其重要的角色,從經文文字的傳抄,或是佛教語錄的書寫傳遞等,都是經由書寫文字來呈現,書法自然成為傳遞佛教精神的一部份。從漢代以來的佛經翻譯開始,佛教的思想逐漸趨向與漢字文化做深度結合,所以經由漢文字的書寫而將佛教的精神傳遞,使得佛教廣佈於中土。
而其中佛教的禪宗思想對於文人的影響更為深入,主要是教義不拘束於宗教的形式儀軌,而著重在精神義理的認識,主張「不立文字,教外別傳」。著重於個人內心的真正體悟,所以雖然不立文字經典,但卻也將其內心體悟的訊息,以文字來書寫傳達。在中土禪師這類書寫的論述並不多見,但是在日本的禪師確有許多的作品表現,傳達著個人體悟的境界,然而化作筆端的線條,書寫的形式會跳脫傳統技法的框架,但卻能深切的體現出禪學裡自在的精神意涵。
文人書畫與禪學也有密切的關係,透過文人與禪師之間的交往情誼,禪宗的精神思想在文人的文化圈產生了影響,文人除了對於儒家及老莊思想的涵養之外,又多了禪宗思想的滋養。自唐代王維開始受禪學影響,尤其到了宋代文人聚會中談禪更是不可或缺的議題。因此許多文人受到禪學的影響,自然在書法上展現出禪學的意涵,在書法史當中也形成了特有的意趣表現,如蘇軾、黃庭堅等人。在受參禪影響的文人書法,還有禪師的書法、日本禪林墨迹等,都可看到這般的影響。因此,本文以禪思精神融會於創作,做為書法創作表現的探討。

Calligraphy plays an integral role in the development of Buddhism, including the transcription of scriptures or the distribution of Buddhist words and phrases in writing,with calligraphy naturally becoming a way to pass down Buddhist ethos. Buddhist scriptures were first translated into Chinese in Han dynasty, and its philosophies have since been profoundly integrated into the culture of Chinese writing. Buddhism has been able to spread all throughout China with the use of Chinese calligraphy to write and pass down Buddhist beliefs.
Within the scope of Buddhism, the philosophy of Zen Buddhism was particularly influential to the literati, especially with its practice and ritual based on the notion that creed is unbounded by religion, with emphasis placed on the understanding of spiritual moral principles, attributing to the principle of “transmission outside the scriptures to not be based on written words.” Focusing on true personal inner enlightenment, therefore, although unbounded by scriptures, the message of inner enlightenment can still be conveyed through writing. There are not many discourses on the writings by Chinese Zen Buddhist practitioners; however, there are many works by Zen Buddhist practitioners in Japan, with their personal states of enlightenment expressed. Transformed into lines and strokes, although this type of writing strays away from conventional technical framework, it is still able to profoundly convey the spiritual significance with being at ease focused on in Zen teachings.
Literati calligraphy and painting are also closely connected to Zen teachings.Through friendships formed between literati and Zen masters, the spiritual philosophies taught in Zen Buddhism began to influence the cultural community of the literati. In addition to the philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism, Zen philosophies also became a source of knowledge. Wang Wei, a renowned Tang dynasty man of arts and letters of his time, was one of the first to study the teachings of Zen, and at literati gatherings in the Song dynasty, discussions on Zen philosophies became essential.Many literati were then influenced by Zen teachings, leading to the use of calligraphy to express Zen philosophies, resulting in unique and interesting expressions in thehistory of calligraphy, as seen with works by Su Shi, Huang Ting-Jian, and others. Amongst calligraphic works by literati influenced by Zen teachings are alsocalligraphies by Zen masters, including Japanese Zen Monk Nichiren Calligraphy,with the influence of the teachings made apparent. This paper will explore creativeintegrations of Zen philosophies and ethos in calligraphic works.
Table of contents一、前言 26
二、書法與禪學的相關影響 27
(一) 禪學的發展 27
(二) 文人參禪 29
(三) 禪學對書法的影響 31
1.佛經書寫 31
2.禪與書法 33
三、禪意書法的發展 34
(一) 懷素 35
(二) 蘇軾 36
(三) 黃庭堅 38
(四) 中峰明本禪師 39
四、日本的禪林墨迹書法表現 41
(一) 禪僧一寧 42
(二) 一休宗純 42
(三) 圓爾 44
(四) 白隱慧鶴 44
(五) 良寬 45
五、小結 46

ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits35
Created date2018.09.04
Modified date2020.06.15



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