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武當山道茶之研究:重檢武當山騫林樹、騫林茶的道茶文獻與其丹道實踐=Thesis on Taoist Tea from Wudang Mountains: Reexamining Taoist Tea Literature on Qianlin Tea Tree and Qianlin Tea from Wudang Mountains and Its Alchemic Traditions
Author 賴賢宗 (著)=Lai, Hsien-tsung (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.7
Date2019.03
Pages9 - 38
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為國立臺北大學中文系教授暨民俗藝術與文化資產研究所所長
Keyword武當山=Wudang Mountains; 騫樹=Qianlin tea tree; 騫林茶=Qianlin tea; 道茶=Taoist tea; 月魄法=Yuepo Rituals
Abstract 本文第一節先從口傳文學與神話傳說為導,來切入武當山的道茶文化氛圍。第二節考察東晉乃至宋元時代的騫林樹在道教文獻中的記載,論述騫林樹進入道教史乃是與月華法、月魄法的修練有關。關於騫林樹的早期文史記載,一般學者運用的乃是《雲笈七籤》卷二十三,此書是北宋真宗天禧年間(1017-1021)張君房編。但是實際上同樣的文字已經出現在東晉時代(317-419)的《上清黃氣陽精三道順行經》,所以「騫林樹」的文獻紀錄比現在一般所知道更提前了七百年,而且可以確證千百年來一直是在內丹術的月華法、月魄法的修練脈絡之中,記錄了「騫林樹」。因此,「騫林茶」的道茶背景以及其所在的內丹修煉脈絡乃是十分明白。
本文第三節考察武當山文化史之中的騫林茶文獻。本文運用元代劉道明《武當福地總真集》,明代任自垣《敕建大嶽太和山志》、方升《大嶽山志》及其他文獻,對於騫林茶存在的歷史事實進行論證,對於騫林茶的特徵進行考證。
於第四節,對於武當山文獻所見的丹道月魄修煉進行考察。既然古文獻是在內丹術的月華法、月魄法的修練脈絡之中,記錄了「騫林樹」、「騫林茶」,所以有必要對於武當山文獻所見的丹道月魄的修煉進程與內涵進行考察。
除了對龍門派等等的內丹術中的月華法進行考察之外,本文第五節也考察了法術一類的玄帝(玄天上帝)丹道修煉。如此則武當道茶以及其所可能涉及的內丹與法術,都可以一窺其貌。

This paper opens with oral literature and myths and legends, which are referenced for the analysis on the Taoist tea culture practiced in the area of the Wudang Mountains. Specifically, the second chapter examines records on the Qianlin tea tree found in Taoist literature from East Jin, Song, and Yuan dynasties, proposing that the incorporation of the Qianlin tea tree in the history of Taoism is associated with the practices of Yuehua Rituals (literally “the essence of the moon”) and Yuepo Rituals (literally “the soul of the moon”). Most scholars reference volume 23 from the Taoist anthology, The Seven Bamboo Tablets of the Cloudy Satchel, as the earliest historical recount of the Qianlin tea tree. This anthology was compiled by scholar-official Zhang Jun-Fang for Emperor Zhenzong of the Northern Song dynasty (1017-1021). However, the same recount is found on Three Trajectories and the Yellow Pneuma and Yang Essence (Shangqing huangqi yangjing sandao shunxing) complied in the Eastern Jin dynasty (317-419), and this makes the historical record of Qianlin tea tree to be 700 years earlier than conventional knowledge. This also serves as evidence that Qianlin tea tree was recorded within the context of the Yuehua Rituals and Yuepo Rituals that have been practiced for thousands of years as a part of the Taoist Inner Alchemy. This also makes clear Qianlin tea’s Taoist tea connection and its context within the practice of Taoist Inner Alchemy.
The third section of this paper examines records on Qianlin tea’s from literature on Wudang Mountains’ cultural history. The study references Comprehensive Collection of Facts Concerning the Blissful Land of Wudang (Wudang fudi zongzhen ji) by Liu Dao-Ming (Yuan dynasty); Gazetteer of the Great Mountain of Supreme Harmony (Chijian dayue Taihe shan zhi ) by Jen Tzu-Yuan; Gazetteer of Dayue Mountain (Dayue shan zhi) by Fang Sheng (Ming dynasty) and other literature to argue Qianlin tea’s historical presence and to examine Qianlin tea’s notable features.
The fourth section examines the Yuepo Rituals practiced in Taoist Alchemy, which is recorded in literature on Wudang Mountains. Qianlin tea tree and Qianlin tea are documented in historical literature on the Yuehua and Yuepo Rituals practiced in Taoist Inner Alchemy,making it integral to conduct further inspection on the process of the practice and its content. In addition to studies on the Dragon Gate (Longmen) Taoist sector and other branches’ practices of the Yuehua Rituals, section five of this paper also looks into the Taoist Alchemy’s practice that is associated with Xuantian Shangdi (the Supreme Emperor of the Dark Heaven). The study presents a comprehensive analysis on Wudang Taoist tea culture and its connections to the Taoist Alchemy and its rituals.
Table of contents一、導論 12
二、武當道茶神話詩學的周邊:武當山的尹喜岩之道茶神話故事 13
三、東晉乃至宋元時代的「騫林樹」在道教文獻中的記載之考察:走進宗教文化史中的武當道茶 15
四、武當山文化史之中的「騫林茶」的文獻考察 19
五、明代武當山蟾宇詩歌之中所見的丹道月魄修煉 29
(一)、胡儼的〈蟾宇歌有序〉 29
(二)、任自垣作〈蟾宇圜中〉十六首中的丹道修煉法訣 32
六、玄帝丹道修煉與丹道月魄法:雷法法術的玄帝(玄天上帝) 丹道修煉 34
七、結論 36

ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits23
Created date2019.05.21
Modified date2020.06.15



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