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達摩祖師形神之美研探 — 以夏荊山居士之畫作為例=Examining the Form-spirit Aesthetics of Bodhidharma – With Case Studies on Xia Jing Shan’s Paintings
Author 余宥嫺 (著)=Yu, Yow-shyan (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.7
Date2019.03
Pages41 - 78
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為中國文化大學哲學系博士生
Keyword達摩=Bodhidharma; 禪宗=Zen Buddhism; 形神論=form-spirit theory; 夏荊山=Xia Jing Shan
Abstract 六世紀時梵僧「菩提達摩」渡海到中國(南北朝)宣揚佛教,他在中土傳法時的特殊經歷及其創發的「壁觀」修心禪法,被後人附會形塑出一系列「達摩」相關的傳奇性故事與形象。宋初《景德傳燈錄》即收納了十世紀左右關於達摩的傳說事蹟、語錄,並登錄入藏,達摩從此被定位為印度佛教二十八祖的最後一祖、中國禪宗的初祖,人稱「達摩祖師」。
即便達摩的圖像於盛唐時已出現,但在形象上未有突破,仍舊如羅漢或比丘樣貌。南宋後因禪畫興起,具創意性的達摩圖像便從傳統窠臼中跳脫出來,專屬達摩祖師的圖騰式符號於焉形成——胡貌梵相、雙目炯然、腮絡鬚、大耳環、額頭高廣、頭戴風帽等等,姿勢或坐或立,後世幾乎都以此形象來詮釋達摩一葦渡江、面壁禪坐、慧可斷臂、隻履西歸等傳奇故事。
佛畫家夏荊山居士於七十二至八十三歲間繪製了三十九幅達摩畫作,在質、量上不但相當可觀,在圖像表現方面尤有新意,極為難得。本文遂以夏居士所繪之達摩畫作為例,擬透過畫家深具佛學意涵的款識,及其筆下的達摩圖像為分析重點,探討夏居士如何藉由畫筆詮釋達摩集智慧與自在於一身之祖師風範氣韻。從宗教哲學、繪畫美學及圖像學的角度切入,進而彰顯夏居士藉繪畫藝事與佛道相應的精神境界。

In the 6th century, Indian Buddhist monk, Bodhidharma, crossed the ocean and headed to China to embark on a Buddhist mission during the Southern and Northern dynasties. The unique experiences he had whilst spreading the religion in China including his “wall meditation” Zen practice would later manifest into a series of legendary tales and give shape to the distinctive image of Bodhidharma. The Jingde Record of the Transmission of the Lamp produced in the early Song dynasty is a volume work consisting of putative stories about Bodhidharma and also his sayings from around 10th century. The collection identifies Bodhidharma as the 28th and the final Indian patriarch of Buddhism and the first patriarch of Chinese Zen Buddhism.
Images of Bodhidharma were already being circulated during the height of Tang dynasty, but they remained very much the same during that time, with features of an arhat (one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana) or a bhikkhu (an ordained male monk in Buddhism). With Zen Buddhist paintings’ rising popularity in Southern Song dynasty, images of Bodhidharma began to show more creative and untraditional expressions, which evolved into motifs and symbols that have become distinctively associated with Bodhidharma, including a pair of attentive eyes, a heavy beard, a high and broad forehead, and he is often donning big earrings and a cowl. He is depicted in both sitting and standing postures, and the later generations have come to identify Bodhidharma by these features, which are observed in legendary tales about him, including stories of him using a stalk of reed as a boat to sail across the Yangzi River; his meditative practice of “wall-gazing”; his disciple Huike offering his am to Bodhidharma; and Bodhidharma returning to the West whilst carrying one shoe in his hand.
Buddhist painter Xia Jing Shan painted 39 Bodhidharma portraits throughout the years from when he was 72 to 83 years old. The collection is impressive both quantitatively and also qualitatively, especially since the paintings are also quite innovative. This paper references the Bodhidharma portraits by Xia to examine the artist’s inscriptions which hold profound Buddhist implications and also the notable features observed in his Bodhidharma portraits. The analysis departs from the angles of religious philosophy, aesthetics with painting, and also iconography, and highlights the spiritual realm Xia has attained through art and Buddhism.
Table of contents壹、 前言 44
貳、 達摩事蹟與傳說 46
一、達摩事蹟 46
二、傳記小說中的達摩 48
參、達摩的禪法與影響 49
一、達摩之禪法 49
(一)、《楞伽經》與求那跋陀羅之傳承 49
(二)、達摩的禪法 51
二、達摩在禪宗的地位 52
肆、 達摩圖像形神之美研探 54
一、藝術家心中的達摩之美 54
(一)、追求莊子的逍遙境界 54
(二)、體現魏晉流風之美 55
二、達摩圖像溯源 56
三、夏荊山居士之達摩畫作研究 57
(一)達摩畫作圖像研探 57
(二)達摩畫作之題記款識與鈐印 70
伍、結語 75


ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits32
Created date2019.05.21
Modified date2020.06.17



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