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宗教、政治、藝術競合之效應省思 — 以伊朗禁樂政策為例=Reflection on the Coopetition Effects Between Religion, Politics, Art – With a Case Study on Music Censorship in Iran
Author 林卓逸 (著)=Lin, Cho-i (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.7
Date2019.03
Pages81 - 111
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note1.作者為臺北市立大學教育學系博士生

2.本文於2018年6月9日夏荊山學術研討會宣讀
Keyword宗教=Religion; 政治=politics; 藝術=fine arts; 伊朗=Iran; 伊斯蘭=Islam; 禁樂=prohibit music
Abstract 本文藉由伊朗禁樂政策反思宗教、政治、藝術競合衍生之問題。
1979 年伊朗革命之後,實施了禁樂政策,禁止西方音樂在國內的傳播。禁止西樂的理由,表面上是為了避免心靈的墮落,維護伊斯蘭的精神。實際上是為了鞏固統治,這又是政府禁止西樂的真正目的。伊朗政府關心政權的正統性,而禁止西樂有助於正統性的維護。禁樂的結果,成效有限。西方流行音樂活動轉入地下。
伊朗禁樂,反映幾個可讓我們思考的問題。第一,藝術的本質是自由的,藝術價值是被建構的,非樂思想只是一種建構的觀念,不具絕對意義。藝術沒有絕對的標準。第二,伊朗禁樂反映心靈保護或心靈囿限的衝突,關鍵在於限制者對被限制者有無同理心而具有共識。第三,禁樂反映藝術應當是由國家或宗教宰制,或應由個人自主選擇的對立問題。基於藝術價值是由個人所建構的,所以權威不能強制的宰制藝術。第四,禁樂凸顯宗教理想或藝術至上的拉扯。然而宗教所追求的道德觀也是被建構的一種價值,美妙的藝術毋庸被建構的價值所拘束。第五,伊朗禁樂讓我們思考文化對抗或文化理解的抉擇。不同的文化,彼此亦有相通之處。異文化之間應彼此理解,尊重差異,以取代對抗。

This paper reflects on integrative issues resulting from religion, politics, and art through examining Iran’s ban on music.
After the 1979 revolution in Iran, some music has been banned from public life, and Western music is particularly forbidden in the country. The purpose of censoring Western music is to prevent spiritual debauchery and to uphold the Islamic ethos. However, the true objective for the government to ban Western music is actually for the regime to maintain control. The Iranian government pays close attention to the orthodoxy of the regime and believes that the censoring of Western music is beneficial in preserving the orthodoxy. However, the effects of the music censorship have been limited, and activities involving Wester popular music have consequently turned underground.
Several issues could be reflected on from Iran’s music censorship. Firstly, art is essentially free, and the value of art is constructed. The condemnation of music is merely a constructed concept and does not hold absolute significance. There are no absolute standards when it comes to art. Secondly, the banning of music in Iran reflects conflicts between spiritual protection and spiritual restriction, and the key with this lies in whether or not the censorship enforcer is compassionate towards those that the ban is being enforced upon and whether a consensus has been developed between the two. Thirdly, the banning of music brings up the conflicting issue with whether art should be controlled by the state or by religion, or it should be a choice that is opened for individual discretion. Since the value of art is constructed by individuals; therefore, art should not be forcibly controlled by any autocratic regime. Fourthly, the banning of music highlights the push and pull between religious ideology and the supremacy of art. However, moral values that are pursued in religion are also a construction. Art should not be confined by such constructed values. And fifth, Iran’s music censorship prompts us to consider the choices between cultural resistance and cultural understanding. Similarities are shared by different cultures, and instead of resisting, different cultures should seek to understand and respect one another.
Table of contents壹、 背景:伊朗的禁樂 83
貳、 伊朗禁樂的因素分析 86
一、宗教因素 87
(一)《古蘭經》(Quran)、《聖訓》(Hadith)與後世解讀的情形 87
(二)宗教上排他性氛圍之思 92
二、政治因素 93
(一)與西方矛盾的國際關係背景 93
(二)鞏固統治的手段與遵奉教義之名而行鞏固統治之實的伊斯蘭政治傳統 96
(三)正統性維護對事件影響的可能性 99
參、引申的問題反思 101
一、藝術本質的自由性與藝術價值的建構與相對性 101
二、宗教藝術是心靈保護或心靈囿限 102
三、藝術應由權威宰制或應由個人自主選擇 103
四、宗教理想或藝術至上的拉扯 104
五、文化對抗或文化理解的抉擇 105
肆、結語 107

ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits12
Created date2019.05.21
Modified date2020.06.15



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