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住世護法,佈施福田 ─ 淺談夏荊山〈十八羅漢圖〉的表現 方式與其對貫休「禪月樣」羅漢圖式的繼承與拓展=Safeguarding the World, Giving Brings Blessings: A Preliminary Study on the Mode of Expression on Xia Jing Shan’s The Eighteen Arhats and How He Inherited and Further Developed Changyue Style’s Arhat Imagery
Author 王超 (著)=Wang, Chao (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.9
Date2020.03
Pages79 - 101
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為華東師範大學美術學院美術史論研究所碩士生

Keyword羅漢=Arhat; 夏荊山=Xia Jing Shan; 貫休=Gunaxiu; 十八羅漢圖=Eighteen Arhats; 繼承拓展=inherit and further develop
Abstract 羅漢觀念源起於印度,巴利語Arhat音譯為「阿羅漢」,意為應受敬仰者。後秦時鳩摩羅什譯《大智度論》中將其釋義為:名賊,「漢」名破的脫解煩惱者,亦可意譯為「殺賊、無學、無生」的尊者,羅漢是斬斷諸類妄見、迷情思慮等煩惱困頓的智者,具備「宿命明、天眼明、漏盡明」與「如意通、天眼通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、漏盡通」等神通的最高果位者。羅漢觀念雖源起於印度,但印度並未建立起完整的羅漢信仰,未形成成熟的羅漢形象。唐末五代時期,中國本土的羅漢信仰興盛,以羅漢為題的繪畫作品多有出現,並且在五代、北宋時期形成了以貫休為代表的「禪月樣」和以李公麟為代表的「龍眠樣」兩種羅漢畫像風格,前者胡貌梵相,造像奇古,後者僧俗模樣,線條俊朗,兩者風格迥然。
中華優秀傳統文化是中華民族的精神命脈,要努力從中華民族世世代代形成和積累的優秀傳統文化中汲取營養和智慧,延續文化基因,萃取思想精華,展現精神魅力。夏荊山居士生於齊魯,畢生研習丹青,致力於弘揚傳統文化,先生尤擅畫佛像,曾創作羅漢題材類畫像百餘幅,本文擬通過梳理羅漢信仰的初步形成到中國「十八羅漢」信仰的建立,來探討貫休「禪月樣」羅漢畫像的風格與表達方式,並試分析夏荊山居士1995年創作的〈十八羅漢圖〉對貫休「禪月樣」羅漢圖式的神韻、佈景、筆墨方面的繼承與拓展,最後總結出夏荊山〈十八羅漢圖〉的表現方式與表達特色。

Arhat is a concept that originated in India, and it stems from the word “arahant” from the liturgical language of Paḷi, meaning “one who deserves to be honored, worshipped.” When translating The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom into Chinese, Buddhist monk Kumārajīva of the Former Qin dynasty interpreted Arhats as “slayers of thieves”, with the thieves in this case being those internal and external obstacles obstructing the attainment of enlightenment. In other words, Arhats are venerable ones that are thought to be eliminators of obstacles, who are beyond further need for training and not subject to life and death. Ar-hats could break all sorts of worries stemming from delusions and bewilderment and have obtained the following three insights: Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; and nirvana insight that en-ables one to transcend beyond present mortal sufferings so as to overcome all passions or temptations. Furthermore, Arhats also possess supernatural power to appear in any place at will, to fly or go without a deterrent, to have absolute freedom; deva vision (instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the mortal world); ability to hear any sound anywhere; ability to know the thoughts of all other minds; knowledge of all formed existences of self and oth-ers; and the supernatural power of the complete extinction of afflictions. The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arhat, the final stage. Although the concept of Arhat originated in India, but a complete faith system based on Arhats and the image of Arhats was not developed in India. During the late Tang and the Five Dynasties, a faith centered on Arhats began to thrive in China, which resulted in an influx of paintings depicting Arhats. Two iconic Arhat painting styles emerged during the Five Dynasties and the Norther Song era, namely the “Changyue” style made fa-mous by the poet and painter-monk Changyue Guanxiu (otherwise known by his sobriquet of Chanyue dashi, Great Master Meditation Moon) and the “Longmian” style represented by Li Gong-Lin (also known as Longmian jushi, Householder of Sleeping Dragon). The former de-picted Arhats as a peculiar figure with heavy beards and exaggerated features. The latter painted using a much different style, portraying Arhats as monks with attractive, fine-looking lines and contours.
Outstanding traditional Chinese culture is the core and essence of the Chinese ethnicity, and the content and wisdom embodied in such exceptional traditional culture that has been accumulating for generations should be doggedly acquired, preserved, and passed on, and its philosophical essence and ethos should be attained and expressed. Master Xia Jing Shan was born in Shandong, China, and he devoted his entire life to the art of Chinese ink painting and was dedicated in promoting traditional Chinese culture. He specialized in Buddhist portraits and had created over a hundred paintings depicting Arhats. This paper intends to examine the origin of the Arhat concept in India and further extend into the “Eighteen Arhats” belief in China, with studies conducted on the mode of expression on Xia Jing Shan’s earlier portrayals of Arhats to the Changyue Arhat painting style and development led by Gua
Table of contents一、羅漢信仰的流變與十八羅漢信仰的形成 82
二、唐代羅漢圖像的發展及羅漢繪畫風格的分化 84
三、貫休「禪月樣」羅漢圖的表現方式與意境的營造 85
(一) 貫休「禪月樣」羅漢圖像的表現方式 85
(二) 貫休「禪月樣」羅漢圖式意境的營造 87
四、夏荊山〈十八羅漢像〉的表現方式與意境營造 88
(一)應物象形──夏荊山〈十八羅漢像〉的表現方式探討 91
(二)言象之外──談夏荊山〈十八羅漢像〉的意境營造 95
五、結語 96
ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits25
Created date2020.04.06
Modified date2020.06.15



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