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普賢菩薩行法與夏荊山畫作之中的普賢菩薩=Bodhisattva Samantabhadra’s Practice Method and Samantabhadra in Paintings by Xia Jing Shan
Author 賴賢宗 (著)=Lai, Hsien-tsung (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Pages47 - 75
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword夏荊山=Xia Jing Shan; 普賢菩薩=Bodhisattva Samantabhadra; 法華經=Lotus Sutra; 華嚴經=Avatamsaka Sutra

This paper clarifies the three systems observed with the practice method of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, which are the Tiantai system, the Avatamsaka Sutra system, and the Tang Esoteric Buddhism system. The systems are then applied in interpreting portraits of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra painted by Xia Jing Shan. The Tiantai system regards Bodhisattva Samantabhadra as the master of the Repentance of Dharma method. The Lotus Sutra explains the “Dharma Lotus Samādhi” (Fahua sanmei), but mortals are too full of sin to comprehend; therefore, in the final chapter of the Lotus Sutra, “Encouragement of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra”, and also in The Samantabhadra Contemplation Sutra, the studying and reciting of the Lotus Sutra is encouraged, explaining that through the Repentance of Dharma method, Bodhisattva Samantabhadra will then come before sentient beings on a white elephant king with six tusks. Multiple interpretations on the religious practice of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra were proposed by Cheng-guan, the fourth patriarch of the Flower Garland (Huayen) school of Buddhism. It is explained in “Contemplations of the Perfect Interfusion of the Three Holy Ones” by Cheng-guan that the theme of the two holy ones consists, generally, in three kinds of distinction: First is the distinction between faith and the object of faith, with Samantabhadra as the Object of Faith. Second is the distinction between understanding and practice, with Samantabhadra as Practice. Third is the distinction between principle and insight, where Samantabhadra represents the realm of truth. This shows the matrix of Buddhahood (tathāgatagarbha) disentangled from all the afflictions of saṃsāra. Bodhisattva Samantabhadra’s practice for longevity and physical health is explained in Sutra on Samantabhadraʼs Adamantine and Superlative Dhāraṇī̄ for Prolonging the Life Span, a Radiant Blessing Bestowed from the Hearts of all the Buddhas. The Samantabhadra-carya-pranidhāna (Prayer of Samantabhadra) uses the “three secrets” of body, speech, and mind to explain the profound impact that Bodhisattva Samantabhadra’s ten profound vows have had on Han Chinese Buddhism’s interpretation of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra’s practice method and the making of statues based on the bodhisattva. Under this backdrop, this paper intends to interpret portraits of Samantabhadra by Xia Jing Shan and explain the significance they embody.
Table of contents一、導論:普賢菩薩行法與普賢菩薩造像的交涉 49
二、夏荊山普賢菩薩圖像釋義及其與傳統的普賢菩薩圖像之對比 54
(一)夏荊山畫作:普賢菩薩獨一尊的正面像圖 54
(二)夏荊山畫作:普賢菩薩獨一尊的側面像 56
(三)「夏荊山畫作:普賢菩薩會合諸聖圖釋義」及其與普賢行法的關係 58
(四)普賢菩薩會合諸聖圖 60
(五)夏荊山畫作:普賢菩薩會合諸聖圖 62
三、普賢行願的行法:澄觀大師之華嚴經教的觀點 63
四、普賢行願的密教修持法門—不空三藏的唐密詮釋 65
五、澄觀〈三聖圓融觀門〉對於普賢菩薩法門的詮釋 67
六、結論 70
夏荊山之其他作品參考圖表 72
引用書目 74
ISSN24126233 (P)
Created date2020.09.30
Modified date2020.09.30

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