|多重轉化的禪與1950至60年代臺灣抽象繪畫=Zen’s Multi-Transformation and Abstract Painting in 1950s-60s Taiwan
賴國生 (著)=Lai Kuo-Sheng (au.)
夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
|99 - 131
|臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Assistant Curator, Southern Branch of the National Palace Museum
|禪畫=Zen painting; 抽象畫=abstract painting; 抽象表現主義=abstract expressionism; 美國禪學=American Zen; 台灣戰後繪畫=Taiwanese postwar painting
The late 1950s marked the rise of abstract painting in Taiwan. Abstract painters often integrated Eastern spirits in their artworks, and Zen was one of the important elements. The rise of abstract painting in Taiwan was mainly influenced by the global trend propelled by American abstract expressionism. Abstract expressionism had extended from modernism which had drawn inspiration starting in the late 19th century from non-Western art, such as Asian and African. This was observed in French impressionist painters‟ particular fondness for Japanese ukiyo-e, with “ Japonisme” then sparked in Europe due to the popularity of Japanese culture and art.
Japanese culture and art were continued to be explored by Americans in the early 20th century, and Japanese Zen was introduced by monks who went to the United States to propagate Buddhist teachings and thus began to gain more traction in the United States. Amongst the Asian art collected by museums in the United States are many Japanese calligraphy works and ink paintings that embody the spirit of Zen. Calligraphy art composed mainly of rhythmic lines and Japanese ink paintings with large blank areas became new inspirations for American artists. This led to the rise of abstract expressionism, which became an iconic American style of art that was spread throughout the world.
Although those in power in postwar Taiwan had intentions of reviving traditional Chinese painting, paintings of Western modernism had, nonetheless, quietly began to sprout in Taiwan. While the world was swept over by abstract expressionism, a wave of abstract painting was also unfolding in Taiwan. Zen, which was spread to Japan from China, had later crossed overseas to the United States, and along with abstract expressionism art, it had once again returned to Taiwan in East Asia. Zen is a familiar element of Sino-culture for many Taiwanese people; therefore, the Zen demonstrated in Taiwanese abstract paintings encompasses multilayered interpretations on Zen derived from China, Japan, the United States, and also Taiwan itself.
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