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多重轉化的禪與1950至60年代臺灣抽象繪畫=Zen’s Multi-Transformation and Abstract Painting in 1950s-60s Taiwan
Author 賴國生 (著)=Lai Kuo-Sheng (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.11
Date2021.03
Pages99 - 131
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:國立故宮博物院南院處助理研究員
Assistant Curator, Southern Branch of the National Palace Museum
Keyword禪畫=Zen painting; 抽象畫=abstract painting; 抽象表現主義=abstract expressionism; 美國禪學=American Zen; 台灣戰後繪畫=Taiwanese postwar painting
Abstract1950年代後期的台灣,是一個抽象繪畫興起的時代。抽象畫家常在作品中融入東方的精神,而禪是其中重要的元素。台灣抽象繪畫的興起主要受到美國抽象表現主義在全球形成的風潮所影響,而抽象表現主義則延續了十九世紀末以來受亞洲與非洲等非西方藝術影響的現代主義,例如法國印象派畫家特別喜愛日本浮世繪,日本文化藝術在歐洲引發了日本風尚(Japonisme)的風潮。二十世紀初美國人持續探索日本文化藝術,日本的禪隨著前往美國弘法的僧人而逐漸在美國風行,美國博物館所收藏的亞洲藝術中,也包含許多具有禪風的日本書法與水墨畫。以律動線條為主的書法藝術以及時常有大量留白的日本水墨畫帶給美國畫家新的靈感,抽象表現主義就是在這樣的氛圍下興起,並且成為美國的代表性藝術,向全世界傳播。
儘管戰後台灣的執政者期望復興傳統中國畫,西方現代主義的繪畫仍悄悄在台灣萌芽,而當抽象表現主義在世界風行時,台灣也出現了一波抽象繪畫的潮流。從中國傳到日本的禪,跨洋傳到美國後又跟著抽象表現主義的藝術再次跨洋回到東亞的台灣。禪本來就是台灣人所熟悉的中華文化元素之一,台灣抽象繪畫中的禪因此包含了中國、日本、美國以及台灣自身對於禪的多重詮釋。

The late 1950s marked the rise of abstract painting in Taiwan. Abstract painters often integrated Eastern spirits in their artworks, and Zen was one of the important elements. The rise of abstract painting in Taiwan was mainly influenced by the global trend propelled by American abstract expressionism. Abstract expressionism had extended from modernism which had drawn inspiration starting in the late 19th century from non-Western art, such as Asian and African. This was observed in French impressionist painters‟ particular fondness for Japanese ukiyo-e, with “ Japonisme” then sparked in Europe due to the popularity of Japanese culture and art.
Japanese culture and art were continued to be explored by Americans in the early 20th century, and Japanese Zen was introduced by monks who went to the United States to propagate Buddhist teachings and thus began to gain more traction in the United States. Amongst the Asian art collected by museums in the United States are many Japanese calligraphy works and ink paintings that embody the spirit of Zen. Calligraphy art composed mainly of rhythmic lines and Japanese ink paintings with large blank areas became new inspirations for American artists. This led to the rise of abstract expressionism, which became an iconic American style of art that was spread throughout the world.
Although those in power in postwar Taiwan had intentions of reviving traditional Chinese painting, paintings of Western modernism had, nonetheless, quietly began to sprout in Taiwan. While the world was swept over by abstract expressionism, a wave of abstract painting was also unfolding in Taiwan. Zen, which was spread to Japan from China, had later crossed overseas to the United States, and along with abstract expressionism art, it had once again returned to Taiwan in East Asia. Zen is a familiar element of Sino-culture for many Taiwanese people; therefore, the Zen demonstrated in Taiwanese abstract paintings encompasses multilayered interpretations on Zen derived from China, Japan, the United States, and also Taiwan itself.

Table of contents一、前言 101
二、十九世紀末、二十世紀初日本藝術在歐美的風潮 103
三、禪在美國的流行與抽象表現主義的興起 109
四、禪與台灣抽象繪畫 117
五、結論 125
ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits21
Created date2021.04.08
Modified date2021.04.08



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