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莫高窟第 361 窟的華嚴主尊 ── 莫高窟第 361 窟研究之十二
Author 趙曉星 (撰)
Source 2015華嚴專宗國際學術研討會論文集下冊
Date2018.11
Pages567 - 584
Publisher財團法人臺北市華嚴蓮社
Publisher Url https://www.huayen.org.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:敦煌研究院敦煌文獻研究所 研究員
Keyword莫高窟=Mogao Grottoes; 第 361 窟=Cave 361; 華嚴=Avatamsaka; 主尊=the Main Statue; 毗盧遮那=Vairochana
Abstract莫高窟第 361 窟建於吐蕃統治敦煌晚期,是中唐時期最具代表性的密教洞窟之一。主室正龕內彩塑現已不存,缺失主尊的身份是本文探討的主要問題,作者通過洞窟的華嚴主題、華嚴主尊的外形、晚唐洞窟對華嚴主尊的繼承,及華嚴主尊在唐代莫高窟的流行等四個方面進行了討論。
從洞窟的主題來看,莫高窟第 361 窟在設計佈局上,有一個潛藏的主題──華嚴,其壁畫處處暗示著以華嚴教主為主尊。主室正龕,作為全窟視覺的中心,依據《梵網經‧盧舍那佛說菩薩心地戒品》繪製的戒律屏風畫,襯托出主尊作為蓮花臺藏世界教主的身份;又以〈文殊顯現五臺山圖〉和〈普賢顯現聖跡圖〉來暗示彩塑中存在著「華嚴三聖」,再次強調主尊的華嚴教主特徵。洞窟中的一系列壁畫都由華嚴這一主題進行統攝,雖然沒有華嚴經變的出現,但華嚴無疑是莫高窟第 361 窟潛藏的主題。
從中晚唐敦煌主尊彩塑的外形來看,釋迦、盧舍那、毗盧遮那三身有時即為一身,既有釋迦外形的毗盧遮那,也有毗盧遮那外形的盧舍那法身。莫高窟第 361窟的主尊,雖然存在菩薩裝大日如來外形的可能性,但更可能採用著佛裝的釋迦佛外形,這也是唐代敦煌石窟帶有毗盧遮那性格主尊的常見形式。
莫高窟第 361 窟這種以華嚴教主毗盧遮那作為主尊的特點,被莫高窟晚唐第14 窟所繼承。較之第 361 窟,第 14 窟主尊的毗盧遮那性格更為明確,在洞窟的四壁下部繪製了華嚴諸大菩薩來明確主尊作為毗盧遮那的身份,這又比中唐更進了一步。
總之,唐代華嚴教主毗盧遮那逐步成了敦煌密教洞窟的主尊。從盛唐塑繪結合的華嚴三聖開始,到中唐第 361 窟以潛藏的華嚴主題聯繫全窟,最後到晚唐時期繪製華嚴教主的眾多眷屬菩薩來明確毗盧遮那的主尊身份。華嚴教主毗盧遮那從盛唐到晚唐,在敦煌石窟的營建中逐步確立了自己的主尊地位,不僅成為當時華嚴信仰流行於敦煌的實物見證,也反映了佛教造像上華嚴教主向密教主尊轉化的重要過程。

Cave 361 was built in late time of Tibet Occupation in Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang, is one of the most representative esoteric caves in the middle Tang Dynasty.
The main statue does not exist in the niche now. The identity of the main statue is the main problem in this paper. The theme of Avatamsaka in the cave, the main statue’s
shape of Avatamsaka, the inheritance in late Tang Dynasty, and the main statue of Avatamsaka in Tang’s caves were discussed.
From the point of the design, Cave 361 has a hidden theme, Avatamsaka. The murals implied the main statue is the Buddha of Avatamsaka. The main niche, as the
center of the cave’s vision, was covered by the paintings of discipline according to Brahmajala Sutra, also was painted in Manjusri, Samantabhadra and their worlds.
These murals all mean the main statue is the lord of Avatamsaka.
In Tang Dynasty, Buddha sculptures’shape, Sakyamuni, Vairocana and Vairochana, three body sometimes is the same body. The Lord Buddha of Cave 361, there is the possibility of the shape of Bodhisattva, but is more likely to be Buddha Sakyamuni’s shape. This is the common form of Buddha in Dunhuang Grottoes in Tang Dynasty.
Cave 14 inherited Cave 361 in Mogao Grottoes, its main statue also Vairochana, the Buddha as a leader of Avatamsaka world. Compared with Cave 361, the Buddha’s
Vairocana character is clearer in Cave 14. On the lower part of the walls in this cave, was painted the great bodhisattvas according to Avatamsaka Sutra, to clear the main
statue as the identity of the Vairocana.
Table of contents一、潛藏的華嚴 571
二、華嚴主尊的外形 575
三、晚唐的繼承 577
四、華嚴主尊在唐代莫高窟的流行 581
五、小結 582
Hits476
Created date2021.12.08
Modified date2021.12.08



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