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漢代經學視域下的書寫美感和書法藝術=Writing aesthetics and calligraphy art on the horizons of Han Confucian Classics
Author 馬銘浩 (著)=Ma, Ming-Hao (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.12
Date2021.09
Pages9 - 27
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:淡江大學中文系教授
Keyword書寫美感=Writing aeshetics; 經學文字=Confucian Classics Writing; 日常書寫=Everyday Writing; 書法藝術=Calligraphy Art
Abstract文字的發明與穩定是文明成長的重要因素,更是建立文化體系的重要因子。然而,在中國文化體系當中,文字又扮演了不可或缺變因。在漢武帝獨尊儒術,罷黜百家之後,儒學一直是中國文化體系裡的核心概念,在經學演變的過程中,今、古文經之爭應該是漢代經學的重大問題。其中除了詮釋系統之外,文字無疑是今、古文經學爭論的引爆點。蔡邕《熹平石經》的豎立,就等於是昭告天下穩定文字學系統成立和官方字形的統一。
然而,文字符號的發明與書寫必然早於漢代的經學之爭。所以,古文字的多樣書寫型態,也造成了多樣化的書寫美感,和穩定而統一的漢代經學系統文字相比,古文字的不確定性,讓書寫者有更自由的發揮空間,也比較具有藝術的美感。事實上,漢代的文字系統,除了經學為根柢的文字統一符號之外,以日常生活應用為主的書寫系統,一直是很自由活潑的,尤其是以小篆、隸書為主而較為蕭散、自由的漢簡和帛書,佔據了現有漢代文字符號的多數。這些文字有很多只是生活的紀錄,不必然和官方或經學概念有關,和碑刻經學文字形成了不同的書寫美感。
這兩種書寫美感系統,在東漢靈帝設立鴻都門學並想突破經學獨大的局面,最後被經學系統消滅為止。文字的統一性越來越穩定,書寫美感也趨於同合。書法藝術的思維逐漸成形,書法藝術結合書寫美感的相關理論也漸次產生。並種下了中國書法藝術的根基。

The invention of writing has allowed civilizations to be effectively preserved and passed down. However, many issues related to writing had emerged as diverse scripts and fonts became standardized, which altered the course of cultural history. The resulting shifts and changes deserve to be carefully examined, including the rise of Confucianism as main state ideology advocated by Emperor Wu of Han dynasty. This resulted in disputes between Modern Confucian Classics and Ancient Confucian Classics, which impacted the historiography of Han dynasty and dictated the course of its cultural history. The modern and ancient disputes encompassed more than just academic schools of thoughts and political interests; on the very surface, it debated over the issues of authenticity associated with writing. The Modern Confucian Classics consisted mainly of recounts by Han dynasty Confucian scholars, with general ideas of Confucianism thereby derived. On the other hand, Ancient Confucian Classics referenced unearthed literature, and re-edited to decipher the authenticity of the scriptures. Both sides demonstrated theoretical foundations with offensive and defensive objectives, but were both fundamentally focused on the cognition and examination of writing. Therefore, Shuowen Jiezi (literally “discussing writing and explaining characters”, an ancient Chinese dictionary from the Han dynasty) compiled by Xu Shen traced the evolution of Chinese characters, which became the cornerstone for Ancient Confucian Classics. It is not the intention of this paper to go into details on the debate over principles and connotations in Ancient Confucian Classics and Modern Confucian Classics, but the objective is to examine how writing and artistic aestheticism were impacted by the argument over the Confucian classics and their interrelated influences on writing. Furthermore, under the scope of Confucian Classics, analysis is made on how Chinese characters progressed from Confucian principles and evolved into calligraphy art through the gradual development of different and altered writing aesthetics. This paper departs from the value of writing explained by Confucian principles and examines the intrinsic differences between official writing style and everyday writing styles. Lastly, analysis is conducted on the developmental course of calligraphy art under the scope of traditional Confucian principles, and how its give-and-take relationship with Confucian Classics led to the parallel development of writing aesthetics and the art of calligraphy.
Table of contents一、前言 11
二、漢代經學觀念中的文字價值 11
三、文字書寫規準與日常生活書寫 15
四、經學思想與藝術美感的權衡 18
五、書學正統與別裁僞體的並存 23
六、結語 25
引用書目 27
ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits1
Created date2022.08.04
Modified date2022.08.04



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