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敦煌壁畫、變文之佛陀「降魔」故事取向析論=An Analysis and Discussion on the Narrative-Oreintation of "Buddha Conquering Māra" in Dunhuang Murals and Bianwen
Author 張家豪 (著)=Chang, Chia-hao (au.)
Source 夏荊山藝術論衡=Journal of Xia Jing Shan's Art
Volumen.12
Date2021.09
Pages95 - 121
Publisher財團法人夏荊山文化藝術基金會
Publisher Url http://www.xjsacf.com/TW/Showroom02/ugC_ShowroomItem.asp
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:國立嘉義大學中文系兼任助理教授
Keyword敦煌=Dunhuang; 佛傳=Buddha's Biographies Literature; 〈破魔變〉=Destruction of Mara Transformation Texts; 降魔=Conquering Mara; 莫高窟=Mogao Caves
Abstract佛陀證道時降伏魔眾之事,自來即為佛傳圖像與文學的重要素材,在敦煌石窟存有北魏至五代不同時期的降魔壁畫,敦煌文獻中亦存有以佛陀降魔故事為題材之文學作品〈破魔變〉。本文將同流行於敦煌地區之降魔壁畫與變文相較,可見其皆雜揉諸經並呈現民族特色,然敘事取向上有所不同。訴諸視覺之壁畫,表現降魔故事時,主要以面目猙獰之諸多魔軍形象震懾觀者眼眸,以與禪定之佛陀形成「人∕非人」、「正∕邪」、「靜∕動」之鮮明對比;至於訴諸聽覺之變文〈破魔變〉,則以更多篇幅描述魔女色誘佛陀而遭化為老嫗之事,形成「色∕戒」對比,亦呼應押座文「無常」之主題。可知壁畫與文學一則凸顯魔軍,一則強調魔女,從中可見佛教向世俗傳播同一題材時,創作者因應不同傳播載體之特色所呈現出不同的敘事取向。壁畫須將故事定格於有限空間中,故以視覺形象上顯著異於佛陀且手執武器作攻擊狀之魔眾為主,藉以襯托世尊之神聖與禪定,魔女所象徵的色慾等抽象概念則不易於畫面表現,故僅占魔眾之一隅。變文則須面對群眾展演,故敘事者著眼人們生活可感知之「慾望」以引起共鳴,並得以在講唱故事的時光流逝中,逐步藉魔女惑佛而終成老嫗之情節,導引聽眾理解人生「無常」之理,又在魔女向佛陀誠心懺悔而最終能恢復美貌之情節中,展現經典所載世尊以「慈心」降魔之說。

Since ancient times, the story of Buddha conquering Mara-Papman and his demonic legion and daughters during his sermon has been an essential material for Buddhism literatures and iconography. The Dunhuang Caves contain mural paintings of conquering demons during Northern Wei to late Tang Dynasty or Five-Dynasty Period. In Dunhuang Manuscripts, there is also the Bianwen work of Destruction of Mara Transformation Texts, which adapts the story of Buddha conquering the demons. This study will compare the mural paintings and the Bianwen with the theme of demon conquering passed down in the Dunhuang area, seeing the combination of various scriptures and presenting civil characteristics in different orientations. When showing the story of conquering demons, the mural paintings that appeal to vision mostly present images of large demonic legion with hideous faces to stun the eyes of viewers; the hideous image then, along with the Buddha in peace, forms a clear comparison of “human/non-human”, “good/evil”, and “static/dynamic”. As for the Bianwen of Destruction of Mara Transformation Texts that appeals to audition, the contents focus more on Papman’s daughters seducing the Buddha and then being transformed into old women, resulting in the comparison of “lust/discipline” and presenting the concept of “impermanence”. From the mural paintings and the literature, we can know that one emphasizes the demonic legion, and the other emphasizes Paraman’s daughters, seeing that, when the Buddhism want to transmit the same theme to the world, creators present different descriptive orientation in response to the characteristics of different media. Mural paintings must confine the story to a limited space, and thus the presentation focuses on Buddha to fight against the carrying weapons demons in terms of visual image, thereby emphasizing the Buddha’s divinity and meditation to make viewers feel the awe in it. In contrast, the abstract concepts such as lust symbolized by Paraman’s daughters are not easy to be presented by iconography, and therefore they only occupy a small corner of the paintings. As for the Bianwen, performers must face the audience and sing out the story. Therefore, the narrators focus on the “desires” that can be felt in minds of people in their daily life, making them in tune with the story. As time passes, with the plots of Paraman’s daughters seducing the Budhha and eventually being transformed into old women, the audience are guided to understand the “impermanence” of life as well as to see that the demons are conquered by Buddha’s “mercy” in the plot of Paraman’s daughters repenting to the Buddha and restoring their beauty, just as told in the scriptures.
Table of contents壹、前言 98
貳、漢譯佛典佛陀降魔故事之經典敘事 100
叄、敦煌壁畫「降魔經變圖」之敘事取向 103
肆、敦煌變文寫本〈破魔變〉之敘事取向 109
伍、結語 115
引用書目 117
ISSN24126233 (P)
Hits1
Created date2022.08.04
Modified date2022.08.04



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