Site mapAbout usConsultative CommitteeAsk LibrarianContributionCopyrightCitation GuidelineDonationHome        

CatalogAuthor AuthorityGoogle
Search engineFulltextScripturesLanguage LessonsLinks

Extra service
試由民俗異變及儒者之排拒重勘漢地佛教「七七」="Seven Sevenths" in Han Buddhist Funeral: Analyzing the Variations in Common Funeral Practices and the Resistances from the Confucians
Author 彭美玲 (著)=Peng, Mei-Ling (au.)
Source 臺大中文學報=Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature N.T.U.
Pages1 - 54
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword佛教=Buddhism; 喪禮=funeral; 做七=doing the Sevenths; 儒者=Confucian; 民俗=folklore

"Seven Sevenths" in Han Buddhism is to benefit and bless those who newly passed on and are stuck in limbo. It is believed that they go through a transition every seven days, and reincarnate within 49 days to other worlds suitable for their karma or level of consciousness. With the offering and effort of "doing the Sevenths," the dead will go to a better place. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, "Seven Sevenths" and "Hundredth Day" turned into common practices, increasingly replacing ancient Confucian rites Yu Ji (虞祭, a funeral ritual of requiescat) and Zu Ku (卒哭, a funeral ritual that abolishes untimed crying). As the result, these new rites greatly changed the Chinese ancient funeral that usually lasted three years and thus brought spiritual and religious ceremonies into ordinary family rituals. Most importantly, through "Seven Sevenths," the Buddhist theories such as "ten dharma-worlds," reincarnation, cause and effect, retribution, and punishment in hell, teach the process of soul purifying through postmortem redemption. This is vastly different from Confucian's silence on the topics of death. In this way, Buddhism fundamentally changed ancient Chinese funeral practice. Since the Tang and the Song Dynasties, there is apparent contrast between traditional Confucians and commoners in their funeral practice. Most of ordinary families do the Sevenths in funeral but lose the seriousness of religious ceremony. On the contrary, traditional Confucians regard Buddhist funeral and cremation as foreign and barbaric. Secularization, socialization and entertainment are integrated into the common rites, while traditional Confucians insist and preserve the old rites. In fact, "Seven Sevenths" are similar to the daily recitation rituals routine in Buddhist temple, especially the evening ritual. By means of "doing the Sevenths," the soul can be saved and purified in order to reach peaceful and immense Buddha land. For the living, the series of rituals also serve to heal the pain and shock of great loss during the very difficult time. To sum up, this article discusses about the following topics: 1. Confucius ancient funeral Yu Ji is increasingly replaced by Buddhist "Seven Sevenths" as common practice. 2. Over time, "Seven Sevenths" diverts from a serious religious ritual, turning into events with social and entertaining functions. 3. Some Confucians resist the new rites, while some are more tolerant towards them. 4. Elements of "Seven Sevenths" are similar to the daily recitation rituals routine in Buddhist temple. With the above discussion, this article aims to shed some light on the evolution of Chinese traditional funeral rites, especially concerning about Confucianism, Buddhism, and folklore. It would provide implications for ritual practice and further studies.
Table of contents一、引言 5
二、儒者「虞祭」日益爲佛教「七七、替代 9
三、民家「治喪用浮屠」衍生「七七」異變 16
四、儒者「治喪不用浮屠」對「七七」有所依違論難 25
五、以今見佛門儀軌重勘「七七」禮意 37
六、結語 42
引用書目 45
ISSN10132422 (P)
Created date2023.12.29
Modified date2023.12.29

Best viewed with Chrome, Firefox, Safari(Mac) but not supported IE


You are leaving our website for The full text resources provided by the above database or electronic journals may not be displayed due to the domain restrictions or fee-charging download problems.

Record correction

Please delete and correct directly in the form below, and click "Apply" at the bottom.
(When receiving your information, we will check and correct the mistake as soon as possible.)

Serial No.

Search History (Only show 10 bibliography limited)
Search Criteria Field Codes
Search CriteriaBrowse