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關帝與佛教伽藍神之關係,兼論關帝神格屬性應歸於道而非佛 =The Relationship Guan Di and the Buddhist Deity Sangharama: To Attribute the Character of Guan Di to Taoism, Not the Buddhism
著者 蕭登福 (著)=Hsiao Teng-fu (au.)
掲載誌 成大宗教與文化學報=Journal of Religion and Culture of National Cheng Kung University
巻号n.20
出版年月日2013.12
ページ65 - 84
出版者國立成功大學中國文學系宗教與文化研究室
出版サイト http://zhncku.med.ncku.edu.tw/buddhism/list.php
出版地臺南市, 臺灣 [Tainan shih, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者為國立台中應用科技大學應用中文系教授。
キーワード關帝=Guan Di; 道教=Taoism; 佛教=Buddhism; 智顗=Zhi Yi
抄録世人或說關帝神格跨三教,在道教為伏魔大帝,在儒為文衡帝君2,在佛為護法伽藍。其中,關帝原和佛教無涉,關帝和佛教的關係起於唐德宗朝,董侹重修關廟記,旨在敘述關帝展現神力助智顗建玉泉寺,此故事原是眾多關帝顯聖的神蹟之一,重在因關帝神蹟顯赫,因而重修關帝廟。關帝是主角,智顗僅是配角。但到了宋代僧人,開始把重點轉移到僧人的禪定功德上,主角換成了智顗,關帝成了慕德皈依者,並因此把關帝說成了佛教寺廟的護法神。其實這種說法,是出於僧人的巧手轉移,目的在誇大僧人的能力,以爭取更多的信眾,但以史料來看,隋代智顗的弟子曾詳述當年玉泉寺的修建經過,只說該地原是荒蕪蛇獸出没之地,並沒有關帝七日內助建完成玉音寺的誇大說法。而以關帝成神證聖的過程及歷代帝王的封號上看,關帝屬於《禮記.祭法篇》所說有功於國家人民,而被奉祀為神。且其封號,由三國受封為「漢壽亭侯」,至宋代徽宗初封「忠惠公」,再加封「武安王」,由宋經元至明初,其神格皆屬「王」,至明神宗萬曆四十二年始加封為「三界伏魔大帝神威遠震天尊關聖帝君」。其位階由侯、公、王、帝、天尊,因其神跡之顯盛,澤民利國之深厚,而封號迭增。其因功而成神,借神而修功德,因功德而迭受封號,屬於道教成神作聖及封神之法,和佛教小乘的修四諦,大乘的修六度法門,密教修身口意三密相應皆不同,其果位亦和佛教的阿羅漢、辟支佛、菩薩、佛,所說四聖果位不同。關帝的神格屬性,顯然歸屬於道教而非佛教。

Usually speaking, people advocate the character of Guan Di (關帝) refers to three religions, such as: Fu Mo Da Di in Taoism, Wen Hen Di Jiung in Confucianism and Sangharama in Buddhism. Among these aspects , Guan Di is not related to Buddhism originally. Their relationship started from the time of Emperor Tang De Tsong(唐德宗).The record of Repairing of Guan Di Temple written by Dong Tin(董挺),refered about Guan Di helped Zhi Yi(智覬)to construct Yui Chung Temple(玉泉寺) with his divine power. Guan Di who was the leading role, Zhi Yi was only a minor role. But in Song Dynasty, the Buddhist clergy began to emphasize the merit of meditation from the monk, the leading role changed into Zhi Yi, and Guan Di became an adorer and converted to be a Buddhist. Therefore Guan Di was described as a deity of protector for Buddhist temple. As a matter of fact ,this skill explanation was made in order to exaggerate the power of Buddhist monk to lure more disciple of Zhi Yi had written about the re-construction of Yui Chan Temple(玉泉寺) never spoke about the Guan Di helped the temple rebuilt in seven days, only related that the place was deserted and full of wild animals. According to the procedure of Guan Di to become a deity from man, and the title baptized by the emperors of manydifferent dynasties. The theory was based on “Li Chi‧method of worship”(《禮記‧祭》).Because Guan Di had a great favor to country and people, so as to be worshiped as a god. Paralled his titles, in the times of three kingdoms (三國時代), he was baptized as Zhong Huei Gong(忠惠公),later rebaptized as San Tieh Fwu Mo Da Di Shen Wei Wan Zhen Tien dzuen Guan Sang Di Jiung (三界伏魔大帝神威遠雲天尊). His class was ascended from Hou(侯), Gong(公), Wang(王),Di(帝), Tien Dzung(天尊). Because of his glorious miracle, benefited country and people profound , So his title was generated continually. Guan Di became a deity through his merit ,to cultivate his merit and virtue through a deity, he was given many titles repeatedly through his merit and virtue. The procedure was attributed to the way of Taoism. The way a man became a deity and saint ,and the titles as god, this is a procedure of Taoism. It is different from Buddhism, such as: Arhat pratyaka-Buddha,Buddha. The deity character of Guan Di attributed to Taoism, not Buddhism is apparently.
目次壹、關帝和佛教的關係,肇始於唐代關帝彰顯神力助智顗建玉泉寺 67
貳、宋代僧人巧手轉變關帝皈依智顗,成為佛教護法神 68
參、元明以後經小說的傳揚,關帝成為佛教護法神 71
肆、由史料及文獻上看,關帝皈依智顗,出於僧人附會並非史實 73
伍、從佛教的修行法門上看關帝不屬於佛教神祇 74
一、小乘佛教修行以四諦十二因緣為主 74
二、大乘佛教修行以六度為主 75
三、密教修行法以壇場及三密相應為主 76
陸、由關帝的成神作聖,看關帝的宗教歸屬應屬於道教 77
一、由因功受祀者為神,論關帝神格歸屬於道教 77
二、道書所載死後修仙法門,尸解十轉、地仙天仙、三清大羅天仙等修煉次第 79
柒、由歷代對關聖帝君的封號論關帝神格應歸屬於道教 81
捌、結語 83


ISSN18136400 (P); 18136400 (E)
ヒット数423
作成日2014.05.30
更新日期2017.08.16



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