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「霊山八箇年」の伝承について=Eight Years on Gṛdhrakūṭa-parvata
著者 藤井教公 (著)=Fujii, Kyoko (au.)
掲載誌 印度學佛教學研究 =Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies=Indogaku Bukkyōgaku Kenkyū
巻号v.68 n.2 (總號=n.150)
出版年月日2020.03.20
ページ644 - 651
出版者日本印度学仏教学会
出版サイト http://www.jaibs.jp/
出版地東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語日文=Japanese
キーワード法華経; 日蓮; 法界性論; 天台宗
抄録In Nichiren’s works, the phrase “Eight years on Gṛdhrakūṭa-parvata” 霊山八箇年 is often seen in various places. This means that the Buddha preached the Lotus Sūtra 法華経 for eight years on Gṛdhrakūṭa-parvata. This paper investigates the origin of the idea and how it has been passed down.

Śākyamuni Buddha is said to have died at the age of eighty. Assuming that the preaching period of the Lotus Sūtra was eight years, he must have started preaching it when he was no older than seventy-two.

The Sūtra of Innumerable Meanings 無量義経, which is regarded as an introduction to the Lotus Sūtra, says “The Buddha did not reveal the truth for more than forty years,” and the Lotus Sūtra itself says “Since the Buddha was enlightened, forty years have passed.” If this chronology holds, Śākyamuni attained enlightenment at the latest at the age of thirty-two. The biography of Śākyamuni that we commonly know, however, represents that he renounced secular life at the age of twenty-nine and reached enlightenment at the age of thirty-five, after six years of penance.

However, this tradition doesn’t add up. Nichiren’s other works describe Śākyamuni’s achievements having him renounce at the age of nineteen, and reaching enlightenment at the age of thirty. Nichiren cites Mahāprajñāpāramitopadeśa 大智度論 as his source for the expression “at the age of nineteen renouncing,” but even there no clear statement of “at the age of thirty he attained enlightenment” is to be found there.

Nichiren’s other works also show that Śākyamuni preached the Lotus Sūtra forty-two years after his enlightenment, citing the Fajiexing lun 法界性論. This work is attributed to Bodhiruci 菩提流支, who came to China from India circa the sixth century. However, the 法界性論 is not extant. Research by Takashi Aoki has concluded that this text was the first known document which touched upon the idea of Śākyamuni’s having preached the Lotus Sūtra forty-two years after enlightenment.

According to the author’s research, the route of propagation of this text in China and Japan is as follows.

It seems to have existed in China at the end of the sixth century when Zhiyi 智顗 was alive, since we find citations from it in Zhiyi’s Fahua xuanyi 法華玄義 and Fahua wenju 法華文句, and Zhanran’s 湛然 Fahua xuanyi shiqian 法華玄義釈籖.

Concerning its history in Japan, it seems to have existed at Hieizan 比叡山 since Enchin’s 円珍 time; citations are also found in the Shinnyokan 真如観 by Genshin 源信.

Hōchibō Shōsin 宝地坊證眞, who lived between the later twelfth and the early thirteen century, was the next to cite from it. He composed the Sandaibu shiki 三大部私記, in which relevant citations are found. Citations continue to be found all the way through to the Tendai nishidani myōmoku天台西谷名目in the Muromachi period and the Shutsujō Kōgo 出定後語 by Tominaga Nakamoto 富永仲基 in the mid-Edo period.
目次はじめに 644
一 日蓮遺文にみえる「霊山八箇年」の例 644
二 七十二歳、四十二年などの語が見える例 645
三 『法界性論』について 647
四 日本仏教への伝承 648
おわりに 650
ISSN00194344 (P); 18840051 (E)
DOIhttps://doi.org/10.4259/ibk.68.2_644
ヒット数1
作成日2022.09.26
更新日期2022.09.26



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