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西藏文文獻中的和尚摩訶衍及其教法 -- 一個創造出來的傳統=Hva shang Mahāyana and His Teaching in Tibetan Literature: An Invented Tradition
Author 沈衛榮 (著)=Shen, Wei-rong (au.)
Source 新史學=New History
Volumev.16 n.1
Pages1 - 50
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword和尚摩訶衍=hva shang Mahāyana; 吐蕃僧諍=Ch'an; 頓悟=Cig char pa and rim gyis pa; 漸悟=the Great Debate of bSam yas; 傳統的創造=invention of tradition

Cultural exchanges between the Chinese and Tibetans stemmed from a time when Tibetan civilization was still in a very primitive stage. To learn from Chinese and absorb Chinese cultural elements was one of the most important driving forces behind the rapid development of Tibet both as a nation and as a cultural entity. For a time, Chinese Ch'an Buddhism was very popular among Tibetan Buddhists. However, it eventually provoked serious philosophical questioning on various paths towards enlightenment and intense intellectual confrontation between different Buddhist traditions, and led to the famed bSam yas debate between the Chinese Ch'an Master hva shang Mahāyana and the Indian Madhymakanist Kamalaśīla. A close scrutiny of contemporary Chinese and Tibetan sources reveals that the bSam yas debate was actually a series of internal and rational dialogues and arguments between two major Buddhist traditions. Judged even by today's standards, it can be considered a sophisticated intercultural dialogue between Chinese and Indian Buddhists. Unfortunately, the bSam yas debate evolved into a life or death struggle in which it was claimed justice vanquished evil and orthodoxy excluded heterodoxy in late Tibetan historical and religious literature. Hva shang Mahāyana and the Chinese Buddhist tradition was continuously demonized as a synonym for all heretical beliefs and often used as a tool of vicious attacks among different schools of Tibetan Buddhism. This study aims at further clarifying the real face of Chinese Ch'an doctrine propagated by hva shang Mahāyana in Tibet, analyzing Tibetans' understandings and misunderstandings of hva shang Mahāyana's teaching and exploring why and how hva shang Mahāyana and his teaching became demonized in Tibetan literature through scrutinizing numerous accounts of hva shang Mahāyana's life and teaching in Tibetan historical and religious texts. This article concludes that the long-established tradition of hva shang Mahāyana and his teachings in Tibetan literature was artificially invented and manipulated.
Table of contents一、從「背景書籍」和「達賴喇嘛的微笑」談起 2
二、吐蕃時期的漢、藏文化交流和有關「吐蕃僧諍」之傳統 7
三、《禪定目炬》中所見和尚摩訶衍之頓門派教法 16
四、sBa’/dBa’ bzhed和有關「吐蕃僧諍」之傳統之形成 25
五、薩迦班智達對「桑耶僧諍」之記載──作為辯論文章的歷史 34
六、傳統之進一步發展和妖魔化了的和尚 40
七、結論 45
ISSN10232249 (P)
Created date2005.05.18
Modified date2020.10.06

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