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西藏文文獻中的和尚摩訶衍及其教法 -- 一個創造出來的傳統=Hva shang Mahāyana and His Teaching in Tibetan Literature: An Invented Tradition
Author 沈衛榮 (著)=Shen, Wei-rong (au.)
Source 新史學=New History
Volumev.16 n.1
Date2005.03.01
Pages1 - 50
Publisher新史學雜誌社
Publisher Url http://saturn.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~huangkc/nhist/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:日本學術振興會、京都大學文學研究科
Keyword和尚摩訶衍=hva shang Mahāyana; 吐蕃僧諍=Ch'an; 頓悟=Cig char pa and rim gyis pa; 漸悟=the Great Debate of bSam yas; 傳統的創造=invention of tradition
Abstract漢、藏兩族之間的文化交流源遠流長,對漢文化的接受曾是渾沌初開之西藏民族於文化上飛速發展之強大推動力。由唐朝禪師摩訶衍等漢僧傳入吐蕃的禪宗佛教,既曾廣為吐蕃王室與佛教僧俗所歡迎,亦曾於漢、印、藏三地佛教徒之間引發了就成佛之不同途徑而進行的深刻的哲學思考和激烈的思想交鋒,並最終挑起了被後人稱為「吐蕃僧諍」的系列論戰。儘管這場發生於八世紀末的佛法辯論,從當時留下的漢、藏文文獻來分析,它不過是發生於佛教徒內部不同教派之間的關於教法的辯論;從今天的眼光來看,它更可謂是一場高水準的漢、藏〔印〕文明對話。然於後世的西藏文獻中,它卻漸漸地演變為一場正義打敗妖魔、正法剔除異端的你死我活的血腥衝突。和尚摩訶衍及其他所代表的漢傳佛教傳統被不斷地妖魔化,並最終作為一切異端邪說的代名詞而成為藏傳佛教各派之間互相攻訐的工具。本研究旨在通過對不同時期之西藏文歷史、宗教類文獻中有關和尚摩訶衍及其所傳教法之種種記載的發掘和研究,來進一步澄清摩訶衍於吐蕃所傳漢地禪法之真實內容,分析後世藏傳佛教各派對其的理解與誤解,揭露西藏文文獻中和尚摩訶衍及其所傳教法之妖魔化形象的形成過程和原因,以說明西藏有關和尚摩訶衍及其所傳教法之「歷史傳統」如何被後人有意識地創造出來。

Cultural exchanges between the Chinese and Tibetans stemmed from a time when Tibetan civilization was still in a very primitive stage. To learn from Chinese and absorb Chinese cultural elements was one of the most important driving forces behind the rapid development of Tibet both as a nation and as a cultural entity. For a time, Chinese Ch'an Buddhism was very popular among Tibetan Buddhists. However, it eventually provoked serious philosophical questioning on various paths towards enlightenment and intense intellectual confrontation between different Buddhist traditions, and led to the famed bSam yas debate between the Chinese Ch'an Master hva shang Mahāyana and the Indian Madhymakanist Kamalaśīla. A close scrutiny of contemporary Chinese and Tibetan sources reveals that the bSam yas debate was actually a series of internal and rational dialogues and arguments between two major Buddhist traditions. Judged even by today's standards, it can be considered a sophisticated intercultural dialogue between Chinese and Indian Buddhists. Unfortunately, the bSam yas debate evolved into a life or death struggle in which it was claimed justice vanquished evil and orthodoxy excluded heterodoxy in late Tibetan historical and religious literature. Hva shang Mahāyana and the Chinese Buddhist tradition was continuously demonized as a synonym for all heretical beliefs and often used as a tool of vicious attacks among different schools of Tibetan Buddhism. This study aims at further clarifying the real face of Chinese Ch'an doctrine propagated by hva shang Mahāyana in Tibet, analyzing Tibetans' understandings and misunderstandings of hva shang Mahāyana's teaching and exploring why and how hva shang Mahāyana and his teaching became demonized in Tibetan literature through scrutinizing numerous accounts of hva shang Mahāyana's life and teaching in Tibetan historical and religious texts. This article concludes that the long-established tradition of hva shang Mahāyana and his teachings in Tibetan literature was artificially invented and manipulated.
Table of contents一、從「背景書籍」和「達賴喇嘛的微笑」談起 2
二、吐蕃時期的漢、藏文化交流和有關「吐蕃僧諍」之傳統 7
三、《禪定目炬》中所見和尚摩訶衍之頓門派教法 16
四、sBa’/dBa’ bzhed和有關「吐蕃僧諍」之傳統之形成 25
五、薩迦班智達對「桑耶僧諍」之記載──作為辯論文章的歷史 34
六、傳統之進一步發展和妖魔化了的和尚 40
七、結論 45
ISSN10232249 (P)
Hits346
Created date2005.05.18
Modified date2020.10.06



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