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六世紀後葉法華與淨土觀行之融攝 -- 以南、北響堂石窟為例=The Merger of the Lotus Belief with the Pure-land Practice at the Late of the Sixth Century--with the North and South Xiang-tang-shan Caves as an Example
Author 賴文英 =Lai, Wen-ying
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Pages325 - 356
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword響堂山石行道=Xiang-tang-shan Caves; 法華=Lotus Sutra; 淨土=Pure-land; 實相觀=meditation of ultimate reality; 大悲心=the great compassion; 菩薩行=the bodhisattva practice; 行道=the rounding function

The North and South Xiang-tang-shan Caves are located near the city of Ye (in modern Henan Province). The images made and the sutras engraved in the caves all reflect a religious practice produced by a merger of the Lotus and the Pure-land Schools. By analyzing the images and the sutras, this paper attempts to discuss the integration of the two schools in the religious practice as reflected in the caves.
First of all, is a discussion on the combination of the Lotus and the Pure-land in meditation shows that in the South-cave of the North-Xiang-tang-shan. The relation of Sakyamuni, Abundant Treasures, and Amitabha Buddhas shows that the traditions of the three Buddhas were inherited with some created ideas, and that the methods of meditation were merged. The philosophy of meditation was based on the ultimate reality of Prajna and contained the concepts of the Buddhas of the three phases of time, the Buddhas of the three phases of time in the ten directions, and the pure lands of the three phases of time in the ten directions. It reflects the development of major meditation methods in the North and South Dynasties as well as the elevated levels of meditation practices in the period.
Secondly, the 4th cave of South-Xiang-tang-shan, also major in meditation, shows that the means of bodhisattva in the Pure-land practice by the All-sidedness sutra engraved in the cave. Avalokitesvara is one of the many bodhisattvas in the Lotus Sect, while in the Amitabha Pure-land Sect he and Mahasthama are ranked together as the two leading bodhisattvas. In the chapter of the All-sidedness, Avalokitesvara with his great kindness and compassion sets an example for all bodhisattvas in the cultivation of the four immeasurable minds. The great compassion in delivering sentient beings, acting together with the power of the original vows of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, consolidates the doctrine of the Pure-land School.
Lastly, with the 2th cave of South-Xiang-tang-shan as an example, to analyze the rounding practical function of the Pure-land image with names of the sixteen Buddhas enter into the central-column cave. It is stated in the chapter of The Parable of the Magic City in the Lotus Sutra that the sixteen royal sons of Universal Surpassing Wisdom Buddha continually expounded the Lotus Sutra while the Buddha was in a deep meditation in a quiet room, and that later on they all became Buddhas in the ten directions of the universe and explained the Dharma to deliver living beings in their respective worlds. Among the sixteen royal sons were Amitabha and Sakyamuni Buddhas. The making of the images of the sixteen royal sons started from the Northern Wei Dynasty and were popular in local organizations. After into the central-column cave, which combined with the Pure-land image on the top of the entrance, then the religious practice of the rounding function has been developed.
ISSN16086848 (P)
Created date2006.12.14
Modified date2017.07.27

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