Site mapAbout usConsultative CommitteeAsk LibrarianContributionCopyrightCitation GuidelineDonationHome        

CatalogAuthor AuthorityGoogle
Search engineFulltextScripturesLanguage LessonsLinks
 


Extra service
Tools
Export
六世紀後葉法華與淨土觀行之融攝 -- 以南、北響堂石窟為例=The Merger of the Lotus Belief with the Pure-land Practice at the Late of the Sixth Century--with the North and South Xiang-tang-shan Caves as an Example
Author 賴文英 =Lai, Wen-ying
Source 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
Volumen.9
Date2004.12
Pages325 - 356
Publisher圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
Publisher Url http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword響堂山石行道=Xiang-tang-shan Caves; 法華=Lotus Sutra; 淨土=Pure-land; 實相觀=meditation of ultimate reality; 大悲心=the great compassion; 菩薩行=the bodhisattva practice; 行道=the rounding function
Abstract南、北響堂山石窟位在東魏、北齊之國都鄴城附近,其造像與刻經均反映出結合法華與淨土作為修持的行門,本文透過造像與刻經的分析,來論述其中涉及法華與淨土觀行結合的內涵。
首先探討北響堂南洞結合法華與淨土的禪觀內涵,釋迦、多寶與阿彌陀佛的對應關係,反映出響堂山僧人對禪觀思想的融合,其禪法理念以般若實相為宗,從三世佛、十方三世佛到十方三世淨土,標示著南北朝禪法核心的開展,也意味著禪修層次的提昇。
其次,同樣以禪修為主的南響堂第四窟則以〈普門品〉刻經展現大乘菩薩在淨土修行上的意義。觀世音是法華信仰的眾多菩薩之一,在彌陀淨土則與大勢至同為二上首菩薩,〈普門品〉中觀世音的大慈大悲,為菩薩在四無量心的修習上提供了一個方向,藉由度眾之悲心,佛與菩薩之本願力相互為用,亦使往生淨土的法門更加落實。
最後以南響堂第二窟說明淨土變相與法華十六佛名進入中心柱窟的行道修持。《法華經‧化城喻品》敘述大通智勝佛之十六子在佛入靜室禪定時覆講法華,並分別於十方世界成佛,說法度眾,其中阿彌陀佛與釋迦牟尼佛皆為十六王子之一數。十六王子的造像從北魏後期開始流行於邑義造像中,進入中心柱窟之後,結合窟內入口上方的西方淨土浮雕,則開展以行道為主的修持方法。

The North and South Xiang-tang-shan Caves are located near the city of Ye (in modern Henan Province). The images made and the sutras engraved in the caves all reflect a religious practice produced by a merger of the Lotus and the Pure-land Schools. By analyzing the images and the sutras, this paper attempts to discuss the integration of the two schools in the religious practice as reflected in the caves.
First of all, is a discussion on the combination of the Lotus and the Pure-land in meditation shows that in the South-cave of the North-Xiang-tang-shan. The relation of Sakyamuni, Abundant Treasures, and Amitabha Buddhas shows that the traditions of the three Buddhas were inherited with some created ideas, and that the methods of meditation were merged. The philosophy of meditation was based on the ultimate reality of Prajna and contained the concepts of the Buddhas of the three phases of time, the Buddhas of the three phases of time in the ten directions, and the pure lands of the three phases of time in the ten directions. It reflects the development of major meditation methods in the North and South Dynasties as well as the elevated levels of meditation practices in the period.
Secondly, the 4th cave of South-Xiang-tang-shan, also major in meditation, shows that the means of bodhisattva in the Pure-land practice by the All-sidedness sutra engraved in the cave. Avalokitesvara is one of the many bodhisattvas in the Lotus Sect, while in the Amitabha Pure-land Sect he and Mahasthama are ranked together as the two leading bodhisattvas. In the chapter of the All-sidedness, Avalokitesvara with his great kindness and compassion sets an example for all bodhisattvas in the cultivation of the four immeasurable minds. The great compassion in delivering sentient beings, acting together with the power of the original vows of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, consolidates the doctrine of the Pure-land School.
Lastly, with the 2th cave of South-Xiang-tang-shan as an example, to analyze the rounding practical function of the Pure-land image with names of the sixteen Buddhas enter into the central-column cave. It is stated in the chapter of The Parable of the Magic City in the Lotus Sutra that the sixteen royal sons of Universal Surpassing Wisdom Buddha continually expounded the Lotus Sutra while the Buddha was in a deep meditation in a quiet room, and that later on they all became Buddhas in the ten directions of the universe and explained the Dharma to deliver living beings in their respective worlds. Among the sixteen royal sons were Amitabha and Sakyamuni Buddhas. The making of the images of the sixteen royal sons started from the Northern Wei Dynasty and were popular in local organizations. After into the central-column cave, which combined with the Pure-land image on the top of the entrance, then the religious practice of the rounding function has been developed.
ISSN16086848 (P)
Categories討論會紀要
Dynasty隋代
Regions河北(邯鄲響堂山石窟)
Hits2429
Created date2006.12.14
Modified date2017.07.27



Best viewed with Chrome, Firefox, Safari(Mac) but not supported IE

Notice

You are leaving our website for The full text resources provided by the above database or electronic journals may not be displayed due to the domain restrictions or fee-charging download problems.

Record correction

Please delete and correct directly in the form below, and click "Apply" at the bottom.
(When receiving your information, we will check and correct the mistake as soon as possible.)

Serial No.
140453

Search History (Only show 10 bibliography limited)
Search Criteria Field Codes
Search CriteriaBrowse