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緬甸仰光漢傳佛教團體之發展與困境=Development and Dilemma of the Chinese Buddhism Organizations in Yangon, Myanmar
Author 釋自懋
Pages157
Publisher慈濟大學宗教與文化研究所
Publisher Url http://www.religion.tcu.edu.tw/
Location花蓮市, 臺灣 [Hualien shih, Taiwan]
Content type博碩士論文=Thesis and Dissertation
Language中文=Chinese
Degreemaster
Institution慈濟大學
Department宗教與文化研究所
Advisor盧蕙馨;張憲生
Publication year94
Note作者俗名: 吳鳳螢=Wu, Feng-yng
Keyword居士佛教團體=Theravada Buddhism; 南傳佛教=Lay Buddhist Group; 漢傳佛教=Chinese Buddhism
Abstract本論文以仰光漢傳佛教為研究主題,對緬甸的漢傳佛教界而言,仰光的漢傳寺院一直扮演著教會的角色和僧伽的教育中心,領導著緬甸的漢傳寺院;更是對外往來的主要門戶。因此,研究緬甸漢傳佛教則必須從仰光漢傳寺院著手不可。東南亞地區漢傳佛教的發展脈絡有其共通的模式。所謂有華人的地方就有佛教,而南洋地區華人的正信佛教信仰並非一開始就建立,初期勞工、商人的移民,所帶來的是揉合了神道佛的民間信仰;後期大量知識菁英的移民,正信的佛教信仰方才建立。基於各國政治、經濟、社會文化、華人人口數、知識華僧參與等種種不同的背景,東南亞地區漢傳佛教的發展呈現出興盛與衰微的不同面貌。緬甸漢傳佛教則是屬於衰微的現象。緬甸是一個信仰南傳佛教的國家,當地北傳佛教的社會地位並無法等同於南傳佛教。緬甸華僧近八十年來的努力,于1958年首創緬華佛教僧伽會,廣邀南、北傳僧侶參與盛會,以謀取緬甸社會的認可;另外,受緬甸政府邀請,代表領導漢傳佛教界參與迎佛牙舍利活動,以及受邀參與世佛會的活動,其地位方正式受到緬甸社會的認定。仰光漢傳佛教界歷經英殖民政府的統治、緬日的戰亂,以及緬甸獨立後的緬化、鎖國政策和排華事件,種種不利的外在環境,加上內部缺乏知識華僧的領導,今日仰光漢傳寺院的面貌,華僧除了興建和看守寺院、養護徒眾以為法脈傳承之外,經懺佛事的道場風格成了仰光漢傳寺院對外被認知的代號。自從1988年緬甸施行開放改革以來,緬甸漢傳佛教界才得以重新與外在資源接軌,目前正處於百廢待興的起步階段。

This thesis is research on Chinese Buddhism in Yangon, Myanmar. For Chinese Buddhism in Myanmar, the Chinese Buddhist monasteries in Yangon have acted and functioned as Mission Church and Educational center for Sangha (Community of Monks and Nuns), leading the other Chinese Buddhist monasteries in Myanmar, they are the center. Therefore, to research Chinese Buddhism in Myanmar has to start with Chinese Buddhist monasteries in Yangon.
There is a pattern that can be found in the development of Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Wherever there are Chinese, there is Buddhism. What kind of Buddhism is there depends on what kind of Chinese immigrants. The orthodox traditional Buddhism belief among Chinese in Southeast Asia, though, was not the first kind of Buddhism in Myanmar in the beginning. The early Chinese immigrants into Southeast Asia were laborers and merchants. The religious belief they brought into Southeast Asia was mixed with deities, Tao and Buddhist belief. Then the late Chinese immigrants were educated people and intellectuals. It was at this time that orthodox traditional Buddhism belief was set up. Due to different backgrounds of different country’s politics, economics, social culture, the number of Chinese, and the participation of educated Chinese monks and nuns, there are two features of development of Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia. One is thriving and the other is declining. It is the declining phenomenon in Chinese Buddhism that is predominant in today Myanmar.
Basically, the main religious belief in Myanmar is Theravada Buddhism. There is no cultural role for Mahayana Buddhism as equal as that for Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar. The Chinese Buddhist monks and nuns have been working hard for almost 80 years to get the recognition of Burmese society. They first established the Chinese Buddhist Sangha (Community of Monks and Nuns) Association in 1958, and then invited monks from both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism to participate in the activities of the Association. They were later invited by the Burmese government to represent Chinese Buddhism and to be involved in the event of Receiving the Relic of the Buddha’s Tooth, and they were also invited by The World Fellowship Of Buddhists to take part in the activities. All of these events together indicate the cultural role of Mahayana Buddhism is being recognized by Burmese society more and more.
Chinese Buddhism in Yangon went through the social changes of British colonization, the Myanmar-Japan War, and, after the independence of Myanmar, the policy of Burmanization and isolationism, as well as the events of excluding Chinese. Under all sorts of bad circumstances from outside and lack of the leadership from educated and intellectual Chinese monks from inside, the feature of today’s Chinese Buddhist Monasteries in Yangon is: building monasteries and keeping watching and guarding them, and ordaining monks and nuns to continue the Buddhism lineage. Moreover, Chinese Buddhist monasteries have been seen as a system of conserving liturgy, ritual, and rites, especially for funerals. It is since the Open Reformation of Myanmar in 1988 that Chinese Buddhism in Myanmar has started again to connect with outside resources, and now it is at the beginning phase of a new level of development.

論文
Table of contents第一章 緒言
第一節 研究的因緣 1
第二節 問題意識與研究思路 2
第三節 研究範圍、方法與限制 4
第四節 研究文獻回顧 6
第二章 中國僧侶的移入緬甸與仰光漢傳寺院的形成 7
第一節 緬甸佛教概況簡介 7
第二節 華人和中國僧侶移入緬甸的歷史背景 10
一、華人和中國僧侶移入緬甸的內、外在因素 10
二、漢傳僧侶對緬甸漢傳佛教的影響 15
第三節 仰光漢傳寺院的形成和興建 18
一、仰光漢傳寺院的成立與現況 19
二、仰光漢傳寺院建築的發展形式 52
第三章 寺院的經營管理與居士佛教團體 54
第一節 寺院的運作與傳戒活動 54
一、組織管理與法務活動 54
二、寺院經濟來源與支出 58
三、傳戒活動開辦的意義與變化 59
第二節 參與迎佛牙和世佛會活動的意義與影響 65
一、參與「迎佛牙舍利」活動 65
二、參與「世界佛教徒友誼會」 68
三、結語 69
第三節 仰光漢傳佛教的居士團體 70
一、女齋堂 70
二、佛學居士林 71
三、中緬佛教居士林 77
四、十方觀音寺弘法所 78
五、結語 80
第四章 漢傳佛教僧人的養成教育與還俗現象 82
第一節 僧人的來源 82
一、僧人多來自上緬甸地區 83
二、南坎鎮是僧人來源的要鎮 86
三、下緬甸仰光僧人來源欠缺 88
第二節 僧人出家動機與出家年齡年輕化 89
一、出家動機與期望的差距 90
二、僧人年齡年輕化 93
第三節 僧人教育 94
一、僧人的世學教育與目前受教育的概況 94
二、佛學院的成立與停辦 98
第四節 僧人還俗比率偏高的原因 103
第五章 東南亞地區的仰光漢傳佛教 108
第一節 緬甸與新、馬地區漢傳佛教發展概況的比較 108
第二節 仰光漢傳佛教與南傳佛教的互動關係 113
第六章 結論 120
第一節 仰光漢傳佛教面面觀 120
一、發展緩慢的內、外在因素 120
二、仰光漢傳佛教的形成特色及其現狀 121
三、緬甸漢傳佛教地位的被認和與外在世界的重新接軌 123
第二節 仰光漢傳佛教的困境及未來發展的解決之道 123
一、困境 124
二、解決之道 125
參考文獻 128
Hits985
Created date2007.07.31
Modified date2015.06.15



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