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《大乘要道密集》與西夏、元朝所傳西藏密法 -- 《大乘要道密集》系列研究導論=Research Series on the Dasheng Yaodao Miji: The Dasheng Yaodao Miji and Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism under the Xixia and Yuan
Author 沈衛榮 (著)=Shen, Wei-rong (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.20
Date2007.07.01
Pages251 - 303
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者為中國人民大學國學院教授
Keyword大乘要道密集; 藏傳密法; 道果法; 大手印法; 西夏; 元朝
Abstract在本文作者三年前於《俄藏黑水城文獻》中發現一系列漢譯藏傳佛教文獻之前,傳為元朝帝師八思巴(’Phags pa Blo gros rgyal mtshan, - 80)編集的《大乘要道密集》是我們知道的唯一一種古代漢譯西藏密法儀軌文書集。這部藏傳密乘佛典主要由屬於「道果法」與「大手印法」的長短不一的八十三篇儀軌組成,它是元以來直至民國時期漢地藏傳佛教行者珍藏的唯一秘典。
本文首先從文獻學的角度,對《大乘要道密集》中的八十三篇儀軌的來歷和內容作了逐一的考證和介紹,同定了集中出現的大部分薩思迦派三代祖師,以及沙魯派祖師卜思端和覺曩派祖師攝囉監燦班藏布等所造法本的西藏文原本,然後對《大乘要道密集》的成書年代作了討論,並綜合性地概述了西夏和蒙元時代所傳西藏佛教的主要教法。本文作者認為,《大乘要道密集》中所收錄的儀軌文書大部分為西夏和元朝所譯,小部分有可能譯成于明初。它不可能是經元朝帝師八思巴之手編成,但其具體成書年代尚難以確定。西夏和元朝所傳的西藏密法前後相繼,雖然以薩思迦派的「道果法」和噶舉派的「捺囉六法」、「大手印法」為主,但其他小教派,如沙魯派和覺囊派等亦已經開始於漢地傳播。

Before the author discovered a large number of Chinese translations of Tibetan
tantric Buddhist ritual texts in the St. Petersburg collection of Khara Khoto manuscripts
three years ago, the Dacheng yaodao miji 大乘要道密集, (Secret collection
of works on the essential path of Mahāyāna; hereafter Secret Collection)—which
is assumed to be compiled by the Yuan Imperial Preceptor ’Phags pa Blo gros
rgyal mtshan (1235–1280)—was the only classical Chinese work of Tibetan tantric
Buddhism known to the academic world. This work constitutes of 83 ritual texts,
long and short, mainly related to the lam ’bras (Path and Fruit) teaching of Sa
skya pa and the Mahāmudrā teaching of bKa’ brgyud pa. It was the only existing
collection of Tibentan tantric texts transmitted by Chinese followers from generation
to generation during the period from the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1264–1368)
to the Republic of China (est. 1912).
This paper provides a descriptive introduction into the origins and contents
of each text included in the Secret Collection. For most of the works attributed to
three Sa skya pa patriarchs, along with the works of Bu ston Rin chen grub of
Zha lugs pa and that of Shes rab rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po of Jo nang pa, the
Tibetan originals are successfully identified. It goes on to discuss the date of compilation
of the collection and give a general overview of the main teachings and
practices of Tibetan tantric Buddhism that were disseminated in the Tangut Xixia
(1038–1227) kingdom and the Yuan dynasty. The author believes that most of the
texts included in the Secret Collection were translated during the Xixia and Yuan
periods, while a small part of it was possibly rendered into Chinese in the early
Ming. It was by no means compiled by ’Phags pa bla ma, though the exact date of
its compilation remains in question. Concerning the dissemination of Tibetan tantric
Buddhism in China, a certain continuity is to be observed between the Xixia
《大乘要道密集》與西夏、元朝所傳西藏密法 · 0 ·
kingdom and the Yuan dynasty. In both periods the lam ’bras teachings of the Sa
skya pa tradition and the Mahāmudrā, especially the Six Doctrines of Naropa of
the bKa’ brgyud pa tradition were evidently popular. Other minor traditions such
as Zha lugs pa and Jo nang pa also left their imprints especially in the later period
of the Yuan dynasty.
Table of contents一、引言 253
二、《大乘要道密集》內容解題 255
 《大乘要道密集》
 第一卷
 (一)道果延暉集,持呪沙門莎南屹囉集譯(1-23)
 (二)依吉祥上樂輪方便智慧雙運道玄義卷,佑國寶塔弘覺國師沙門慧信錄(1-29)
 第二卷
 (三)密哩斡巴上師道果卷(上)
 (四)密哩斡巴上師道果卷(下)
 第三卷
 (五)解釋道果語錄金剛句記,西番中國法師禪巴集,中國大乘玄密帝師傳,北山大清涼寺沙門慧忠譯(1-19) (六)解釋道果逐難記,甘泉大覺圓寂寺沙門寶昌傳譯(1-24)
 (七)大乘密藏現證本續摩尼樹卷,大薩思嘉知宗巴上師造,持呪沙門莎南屹囉譯(1-31)
 第四卷
 (八)呪軌雜集(上)
 (九)呪軌雜集(下)
 (十)大手印要門(上)
 (十一)大手印要門(下)
三、《大乘要道密集》的成書年代 286
四、《大乘要道密集》所傳藏傳密法內容略評 291
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits2234
Created date2007.09.05
Modified date2017.06.20



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