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因果報應與佛教中土化 -- 以因果報應與天人感應的思想關聯為中心=The Conception of Karma and Adaptation of Buddhism for Chinese Society: Focusing on the Connection between Karma and Heaven-man Interaction
Author 伍小劼
Date2007.11.07
Publisher河南大學
Publisher Url http://www.henu.edu.cn/
Location河南, 中國 [Honan, China]
Content type博碩士論文=Thesis and Dissertation
Language中文=Chinese
Degreemaster
Institution河南大學
Department專門史
Advisor李振宏
Publication year2007
Keyword因果報應說=Conception of Karma; 天人感應=Faith of Heaven-man Interaction; 格義=Illuminating Implication; 勸善書=Goodness-advocating Books
Abstract因果報應是中國最重要的倫理道德之一,千百年來,它一直承擔著維護社會穩定的責任。但是實際上因果報應說是佛教的基本教義之一,佛教傳入中國並實現中土化,因果報應說在其中起了重要的作用。學者們在研究佛教中土化的時候,對因果報應與佛教中土化的關係重視程度不夠。本文從論述因果報應說與佛教中土化的關係入手,以期更深入地認識中國思想史。因果報應是佛教最重要的人生倫理,和中國傳統的倫理道德相差甚遠。佛教傳入中國,因果報應說給中國人心理震撼最大。由於因果報應說獨特而巨大的倫理價值,它往往被歷代僧人用來宣傳佛教。文獻記載表明,用因果報應說來宣傳佛教思想,對佛教的中土化影響巨大。因果報應說之所以在佛教中土化過程中作用突出,是因為它和中國傳統社會中的某些思想在內容上有相關聯的地方,尤其是和天人感應的思想更是如此。董仲舒的“天人感應”思想塑造了一個“天”的本體系統,並通過天道的陰陽、五行來言性情、釋人事,為現實的政治倫常生活尋求正當性與合理性。這種思想一經形成,一方面,向政治、倫理、文化、哲學和歷史層面滲透;另一方面,也向漢民族性格、心理、思維深處滲透。因果報應說在傳播的過程中,不可避免地與這種思想進行接觸和碰撞,由於二者俱有理論上的相通性,因果報應說與天人感應的思想逐漸合流,形成了具有濃厚中國色彩的中國民間因果報應觀。這種民間因果報應觀既是因果報應說與中國傳統思想融彙的結果,也是因果報應說對佛教中土化起著巨大促進作用的例證。文章內容結構安排如下,引言部分分析學者對因果報應和佛教中土化關係的研究,分析其不足,闡明自己的研究創新之處;第一部分,說明佛教基本教義和因果報應說的基本思想,並且提煉和“天人感應”思想相關聯的地方,分別進行闡述;第二部分,說明“天人感應”的基本思想內涵,並且提煉和因果報應說的思想相關聯的地方,分別進行闡述;第三部分,對因果報應說和天人感應思想具有相通性的地方進行分析論證,這幾點具體是:其一,因果報應說的主宰“業”被天人感應之“天”所包容取代;其二,兩者都指向積極有為的“人道”;其三,兩者在生態環境思想方面具有相通性。第四部分,闡述佛教因果報應說在佛教中土化過程中所起到的作用和影響。

Retribution for sin and virtue was one of the most important faiths in Chinese traditional ethic and morality, which had helped to maintain social stability for thousands of years. In fact, its ideological root could be traced back to Buddhism. Retribution for sin and virtue was a basic conception of Buddhism and called as Karma in Sanskrit, which played an important role in introducing Buddhism to China in Eastern Han Dynasty and in adapting Buddhism to concrete historical conditions of Chinese society. That’s to say, the conception of Karma had a close connection with Buddhism adapting for Chinese society, to which scholars always show insufficient concern and herein my thesis addresses itself. Commencing with this point, it tries hard to make up the deficiency of previous research and dig further into Chinese ancient thoughts.Having a world of difference with Chinese traditional ethic and morality, the conception of Karma was a paramount philosophy about life in Buddhism and thus convulsed most vehemently the mental world of Chinese people when Buddhism was introduced into China. Due to its enormous and unique ethic value, Buddhist of all past dynasties always turned to Karma for help while promulgating Buddhism, which played a crucial role in adapting Buddhism for Chinese society and could be confirmed in many historical documents and records.Buddhist got an extraordinarily efficient tool in promulgating Buddha, because conception of Karma had something in common with Chinese traditional thoughts, particularly with the faith of“Heaven-man Interaction”, which was put forward by a famous thinker Dong Zhong-shu. Ideologically, he created an ontological world of“Tian”and applied its conversion law of“Yin and Yang”and material outlook of“Wu Xing”to formulating nature and situation of the world, explaining cause and consequence of hominine activities and demonstrating the rightness and justifiability of political and ethic life at that time. These ideas once formed, they started to penetrate deeply not only into polity, ethic, literature, philosophy and history, but also into character, mentality and thinking of the Han nationality. Inevitably, Buddhist had to adjust their sermon to the faith of“Heaven-man Interaction”, which was embraced by government officials. Whereas the conception of Karma was compatible with Dong’s thought, it was easier for them to converge upon folk faith of retribution for sin with dense Chinese characteristics. This folk faith was the fruit of Chinese traditional thought in assimilating Indian ancient religion and proved that conception of Karma had accelerated the adaptation of Buddhism to Chinese society greatly.The thesis is composed of four parts. In foreword part, previous research on the connection between Karma and adapting Buddhism to Chinese society is reviewed briefly, and the deficiency is made clear as well as where my innovation lies. The first chapter focuses on the basic thought of Karma and Buddhism while putting stress on summing up points close to the faith of“Heaven-man Interaction”, which
Table of contents中文摘要3-5
ABSTRACT5-8
引言8-14
一、佛教因果報應說的理論內涵14-31
1. 佛教的基本教義14-16
2. 佛教因果報應論概說16-19
3. 因果報應說的主宰“業”19-26
4. 因果報應說要求的個人倫理道德修養26-30
5. 因果報應說的生態壞境內涵30-31
二、“天人感應”的理論內涵31-48
1. “天人感應”理論概說32-34
2. “天人感應”中的主宰“天”34-41
3. “天人感應”的目的“人道”41-44
4. “天人感應”的生態環境內涵44-48
三、因果報應與天人感應的相通性48-73
1. 因果報應說中的“業”與天人感應中的“天”的理論相通性49-67
2. 因果報應說與天人感應思想的目的——有為的“人道”67-72
3. 兩者在生態環境思想方面的相通性72-73
四、佛教因果報應說對佛教中土化的影響73-84
參考文獻84-90
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Created date2008.07.01
Modified date2015.12.03



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