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南都における戒律復興運動初期の動向=The Early Movements for the Restoration of the Precepts in Nara during the Late Heian Period
Author 蓑輪顕量
Source インド哲学仏教学研究=インド テツガク ブッキョウガク ケンキュウ=Studies of Indian Philosophy and Buddhism, Tokyo University
Pages71 - 84
Publisher東京大学インド哲学仏教学研究室=Dpt. Of Indian Philosophy and Buddhist Studies, Tokyo University
Publisher Url
Location東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
AbstractAfter the approval of the Hieizan Daijōkai(比叡山大乗戒) by the Imperial court, it seems that there arose much criticism of it from monks of the schools in Nara (奈良). It is remarkable that, from the early to the late Heian period, especially just before Kakujo (覚盛)(1194-1249), famous monks in Nara such as Kakuju (覚樹)(1081-1139), Jippan (実範)(?-1144), Onkaku (恩覚)(?-?), Zōshun (蔵俊)(1104-1180) and Jōkei (貞慶)(1155-1213) all disagreed with the idea that it was possible for a novice to gain the status of a monk by receiving the sanjujōkai (三聚浄戒), or the three ideals of a bodhisattva initiation, i.e., keeping all precepts, practicing all virtuous deeds, and granting mercy to all sentient beings. We know of their disagreement from the Bosatsukai tsuju kengi shō (菩薩戒通受遣疑鈔) written by Kakujō and other works by the monks mentioned above. It is known that the monks in Nara did not recognize the three ideals of a bodhisattva initiation as a higher ordination but as a bodhisattva ordination. They insisted that a higher status of ordination could derive only from receiving the upasampadā in the form of the j?apticaturthakarman, or byakushikonma (白四羯磨). In particular, Onkaku wrote very important works such as the Nanboku kairitsu shōretsu kengi kōshin shō (南北戒律勝劣遣疑興真章), which is lost, and the extant ?wa shūron ki narabi ni Onkaku sōjō (応和宗論記並恩覚奏状). We know from the latter that he was strongly opposed the Hieizan Daijōkai. He is said to have been a monk at the Hosshōji (法勝寺) temple, which was built by the cloistered Emperor Shirakawa in the late Heian period. Many monks came both from Nara and from Hieizan to study at Hosshōji and Onkaku is said to have stood at the head of the monks of the temple. Jōkei was also against the Hieizan Daijōkai. It is known from the Shinyō shō (必要鈔) that he thought that the status of a bodhisattva was gained from the ordination of the bodhisattva precepts and that the status of a monk derived from the jñapticaturthakarman. He wrote the Kairitsu kōgyō gansho (戒律興行願書) and built the Jōki-in (常喜院) at Kōfukuji (興福寺) temple for the study of the precepts. From these facts, we must evaluate the idea of Kakujō that it was possible to gain the status of a monk by receiving the three ideals of a bodhisattva. Concerning the ordination's style, it is quite similar to that of the Hieizan Daijōkai, but it was very different in content because he said that one could get a Mahāyāna upasampadā by receiving the three ideals of a bodhisattva ordination. He called the procedure tsūju konma (通受羯磨). It is possible to say that Kakujō was one of the most important monks involved in the doctrinal changes which occurred in the movement for the restoration of the precepts in Nara in the middle ages.
ISSN09197907 (P)
Created date2008.11.25
Modified date2021.08.31

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