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永遠のダルマと顕在化 -- 祭事教学ミーマーンサーにおける「ダルマ開顕説」再建に向けて=The eternal dharma and its manifestation : Toward a reconstruction of the dharma-abhivyakti-vāda in the Mīmāmsā tradition
Author 片岡啓 (著)
Source インド哲学仏教学研究=インド テツガク ブッキョウガク ケンキュウ=Studies of Indian Philosophy and Buddhism, Tokyo University
Pages3 - 16
Publisher東京大学インド哲学仏教学研究室=Dpt. Of Indian Philosophy and Buddhist Studies, Tokyo University
Publisher Url
Location東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
AbstractProf. Halbfass has mentioned that the apūrva-theory is refuted by Uddyotakara in the Nyāyavārttika on Nyāyasūtra 1.1.7, a portion of which has been translated into Japanese and investigated further by Prof. Akamatsu. Akamatsu says that it is still not clear what Uddyotakara regards as the Mīmā?sakas' position on apūrva, i.e., what form of the apūrva-theory was dominant after ?abarasvāmin and before Kumārila. The present author attempts in this article to elucidate the exact nature of the theory, which he tentatively names "dharma-abhivyakti-vāda" (theory of dharma-manifestation). This article presents relevant material from various sources, i.e., Bhart?hari's(?) Vākyapadīya-svav?tti and Mahābhā?ya-dīpikā, Bhāviveka's Madhyamaka-h?dayakārikā, Uddyotakara's Nyāyavārttika, Kumārila's ?lokavārttika, the corresponding passage in Jayanta's Nyāyamañjarī, and Simhasūriga?i's Nyāyāgamānusāri?ī (a commentary on Mallavādin's Dvāda?āra-nayacakra). On the basis of these materials it reconstructs the framework of the theory. Chronology: This theory goes back to the latter half of the fifth century since Bhart?hari already mentions it. The way in which it is referred to by Bhāviveka and Simhasūriga?i allows us to conjecture that it was dominant in the Mīmāmsā tradition in their time. It may be justified to conclude from Kumārila's criticism that its dominance was not surpassed even in his day. Jayanta's expressions "jaraj-jaiminīya" and "v?ddha-mīmāmsaka," in contrast with "?ābara" and "prābhākara," suggest that he believed that it predated ?abarasvāmin. Content: The eternal dharma which is always there (avasthita eva) becomes manifest (abhivyakta) through actual ritual performances (kriyā, karman) such as agnihotra-homa and soma yāga etc. Instead of "dharma-abhivyakai" we also find the expression "apūrva-abhivyakti." Kumārila and Jayanta use instead of abhivyakti the words janman and nir-√v?t respectively. With the help of Simhasūriga?i we can construe "newly-born" (apūrva janman) as meaning a certain special dharma yet unseen (ad???o dharmavi?e?ah), which in being manifested by the actual performances is also qualified by them. Uddyotakara sums it up thus: "apūrva, although one, takes form as if different according to differences in its manifestators (ekam apy apñrvam vyañjakabhedānuvidhānād bhinnam iva bhavati)." From the ontological point of view, the eternal dharma corresponds to sāmānya, the actual performances which function as manifestators to vyakti, and the manifested dharma or apūrva to vi?e?a. Man is also seen as a manifestator according to Uddyotakara. From the point of view of Vedic exegesis, the passage "agnihotram juhuyāt svargakāmah" can be paraphrased along the lines of "One who wishes for heaven should realize dharma which is manifested through agnihotra-homa." This manifested apūrva is baseless (nirãdhāra), remains for some time (sthira), and brings fruit (phalaprada). Although it is one and eternal, i.e., it might be common to all people, it brings its fruit only to a specifīc person because of differences in the manifesting persons (vyañjaka-bhedāt).
ISSN09197907 (P)
Created date2008.11.25
Modified date2021.08.31

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