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『二万五千頌般若』における「空」「不可得」「不可説」=Śūnyatā, Anupalambha and Anabhilāpya in the Pañcavimśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā : A Piece of Evidence for the Yogācāras'Modification to the Text
Author 高橋晃一 (著)=Takahashi, Koichi (au.)
Source インド哲学仏教学研究=インド テツガク ブッキョウガク ケンキュウ=Studies of Indian Philosophy and Buddhism, Tokyo University
Pages41 - 53
Publisher東京大学インド哲学仏教学研究室=Dpt. Of Indian Philosophy and Buddhist Studies, Tokyo University
Publisher Url
Location東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
AbstractThere is a rich variety of Mahāyāna texts titled Prajñāpāramitā, many of which have their Chinese or Tibetan translations available in addition to or without Sanskrit originals. Dr. Kajiyoshi has rightly emphasized the significance of comparing Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan versions of each Prajñāpāramitā sūtra for studying the process of textual formation and development, because in his view Sanskrit originals and Tibetan translations generally show evidence of having been influenced by later more developed ideas in comparison with their corresponding Chinese versions, which seem to represent earlier stages. In accordance with this view, the present study makes an attempt to shed new light upon a phase of the textual development of the Pañcavim?atisāharikā Prajñāpāramitā (= PsP). Specifically, we pay attention to a particular passage concerned with a certain aspect of emptiness (?ūnyatā). Namely, the available Sanskrit text of the PsP says: "The inexpressibility (anabhilāpyatā) of all dharmas is emptiness" (PsP, vol.4, 1732-3). As for the Chinese renderings, Kumārajīva (A.D. 344-413) and other translators after him evidently put 'anabhilāpyatā or some other word of the same meaning into 'bu ke shuo' (不可説, inexpressible), whereas an earlier translation by Mok?ala (ca. 3rd-4th cent. A.D.) has for the corresponding phrase 'bu ke de' (不可得), for which the most probable Sanskrit equivalent is anupalambha, 'non-perception'. What does this difference mean? On the one hand, it is worth nothing that the term anupalambha often occurs in the explanation of an aspect of emptiness such as 'non-perceptibility'(anupalambha-?ūnyatā) in many kinds of Prajñāpāramitā texts, including the PsP. In this sense, 'anupalambha' may fit quite well in the above sentence. On the other hand, the word anabhilāpya/-lapya could be better understood in the present context in close connection with the concept of nirabhilapyatā (inexpressibility) found in the section 'Maitreya's Question' in the PsP, which is now generally accepted by scholars as a later interpolation by the Yogācāra school. Moreover, there seems to lie behind this terminological difference a significant shift in the idea of ?ūnyatā. According to the Da zhidu lun (『大智度論』), anupalambha-?ūnyatā represents the idea that there are no dharmas because they are not perceived. It seems to imply the denial of the existence of ultimate reality (vastu) as the foundation of 'names only'. The connotations of 'nirabhilāpya' as well as 'anabhilāpya' stand in sharp contrast with this. As technical terms of the Yogācāras, both words implicitly mean the existence of the essence of dharmas on the ultimate level in spite of its nature of inexpressibility. For instance, the Bodhisattvabhūmi says: "[When] he truly knows the actually true essence, i.e. the condition of having an inexpressible nature (nirabhilāpyasvabhāvatā), this is called 'emptiness rightly acquired "'(48.4-6). Likewise, the Samdhinirmocanasūtra reads: "There is no expression without reference to any real entity (vastu). What is the real entity? It is something to be recognized as inexpressible (anabhilāpya) by Saints' noble insight and perception" (Peking ed., No.774.?u 3b3-5). Substantially the same idea of nirabhilāpya is found in the section 'Maitreya's Question' too. Accordingly, one might as well interpret 'anabhilāpya' in the quoted passage of the PsP in the same meaning. From what is stated above, it may be concluded with considerable certainty that the mentioned disagreement in Chinese translations reflects a textual change from 'anupalambha' to 'anabhilāpya' in the Sanskrit original of the PsP, and that this textual change was introduced by the Yogācāras. In other words, one finds here a trace of the Yogācāras' modification of the PsP text, and this instance of textual modification, though it might seem rather slight at first sight,implies a radical change in the understanding of the central topic of Prajñāpāramitā texts, i.e. ?ūnyatā.
ISSN09197907 (P)
Created date2008.11.25
Modified date2021.08.31

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