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《妙法蓮華經》「三草二木」段的解讀 -- 文獻學與義理學的進路=An Interpretation of The Paragraph of "The Tree Herbs and two Trees" in Kumarajiva's Translation of The Lotus Sutra: Based on a Philological Study
Author 黃國清 (著)=Huang, Kuo-ching (au.)
Source 世界宗教學刊=Journal of World Religions
Pages135 - 185
Publisher Url
Location嘉義縣, 臺灣 [Chia-i hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword三草二木=the three herbs and two trees; 菩薩階位=bodhisattva's stages; 阿蘭若行=forest-living practice; 版本對勘=textual criticism; 義理分析=hermeneutics; 漢文注釋書=Chinese exegesis
Abstract本文通過語言文獻與義理分析的進路,探討《妙法蓮華經‧藥草喻品》「三草二木」段的問題與解明其義。所獲結論如下: (一) 什譯本將阿羅漢與辟支佛同列為中藥草,不必然是翻譯上的問題,推測是因梵本的變動而出現不同版本。然而,現存梵本以人天乘為細小藥草,阿羅漢為小藥草,辟支佛為中藥草,上藥草、小樹、大樹喻指不同菩薩位次,與此經一乘方便開三乘的意趣較能呼應。(二) 此段在三乘外多出人天乘,應與援用密雲降雨普潤草木的寓言故事有關,該則寓言通常蘊含普化人天的意義。(三) 上藥草、小樹、大樹三位所述菩薩實踐成就,與當時通行的一種菩薩位次說頗類似,分別代表初發心、久習行、不退轉三階。(四)此段菩薩實踐內容特中禪定風格,非一般所言的六波羅蜜行,英語源自阿蘭若行的大乘三昧行法有關。(五)中國注釋家都接受人天乘一項,註釋內容的差異主要在菩薩階位的對應上,道生、法雲、吉藏各依所宗經論的相關說法;窺基引據經論並結合自家的五姓各別說;智顗採用天台的化法四教的架構。

This article aims at clarifying some philological problems and expound the thought of the paragraph of "the three herbs and two trees" in the fifth chapter (osadhi) of Kumarajiva's Translation of the Lotus Sutra. The findings are as follows: (1) The Arhat and the Pratyekabuddha are both matched to the middle-sized herb in Kumarajiva's chinese translation. It must not be a wrong translation. The most possible reason for this rendering is the differences in different manuscripts. However, the sanskirt manuscripts found in Gilgit and Nepal connects the Arhat with the small-sized herb. This is well-matched with the context of the three vehicles in the Lotus Sutra. (2) Except for the three vehicles, there are another two vehicles of human and heaven in this paragraph. An explanation for this is that the sutra bollowed the story of "a timely rain moistens all plants", which has the implication of teaching all the beings in earth and heaven. (3) The large-sized herb, small three and big three are considered to be three stages of bodhisattvas' development ─ the bodhisattva whose bodhi-citta is newly aroused, the bodhisattva who has developed for a long-time, and the bohisattva who has become non-turning back. This is similar to a common theory of bodhisattva's stages in that time. (4) The practices in these three bodhisattva's stages are closely connected with meditation. This must be due to the forest-living style of those who divulged the Lotus Sutra. (5) The ancient Chinese exegetes all accepted the vehicles of human and heaven. With regard to the three bodhisattva's stages, each of them matched them with a framework of bodhisattvas' stages based on his own buddhist theory.
Table of contents一、前言 137
二、漢梵藏諸本的對照 139
三、義理內容的解明 151
四、中國注釋家的解釋 166
五、結語 181
ISSN1728645X (P)
Created date2009.10.16
Modified date2017.11.07

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