中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
|Pages||121 - 145|
|Publisher||中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies|
|Location||新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]|
|Content type||期刊論文=Journal Article|
|Keyword||天台智顗; 圓頓; 圓頓教; 圓頓止觀; 圓教; 頓教; 天台宗|
The concept of "complete and immediate" 圓頓
which is a terminal idea of Chinese Buddhism took by
T'en-t'ai Chih-I 天台智顗 (Chih-ja 智者 is his
another name). The concept indicates a final spirit
of Buddhism：that all things are exhausted coherence
without any accident，lacking and unsatisfactory.
T'en-t'ai Chih-I had deducted the thought about
"complete and immediate" by the two ways：1.
"complete and immediate teaching" 圓頓教; 2.
"complete and immediate insight or examination" 圓頓
止觀. First，Ten-tai Chih-I had believed that the
"complete and immediate teaching" is the Buddha's
only one and truest vehicle of teaching which
was never said in any other three vehicle `sutra`,
but was completely (perfectly) 圓滿地 and
immediately (suddenly) 頓時地 taught by Buddha in
the Lotus `sutra` 法華經. So，the "complete and
immediate teaching" can be seperated as two parts,
the one is the Buddha's doctrine called "complete
teaching of doctrine" 化法圓教，another is the
Buddha's teaching method called "immediate or sudden
teaching of method" 化儀頓教. The "complete
teaching" 圓教 is the real doctrine of "complete
and immediate teaching"，but the "immediate teaching"
頓教 is just its method.
T'en-t'ai Chih-I also had developed the
"complete and immediate insight". What means that
"complete and immediate insight"? T'en-t'ai Chih-I
thought that all the livings have the capacity in
his heart to comprehend the three dogmas of
universal 空，particular 假，and middle 中，as one
and the same，as a unity at one and the same time.
After learning to use the capacity，people can
justify the truth of the world：there is nothing
more than the middle dogma, and people would see the
real face of the world as the Buddha has seen，and
relieve himself from pain which caused by prejudice
"Teaching" 教 and "insight" 觀 are the two
important parts of T'en-t'ai school and can't be
lack any one of them. Chih-I used the "complete and
immediate teaching" to develop the doctrine of
"complete and immediate teaching" (but "complete
teaching" is his real intention)，and Chin-I had
also tried to form a practical method to insight the
truth of the world，it is the "complete and
immediate insight". Combine both of them，the
T'en-t'ai Chin-I's idea of "complete and immediate"
just to be finished.
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