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The Poetics of Ch'an: Upāyic Poetry and Its Taosist Enrichment=禪詩論 -- 方便善巧的禪詩偈頌及其道家豐富蘊蓄
Author 華珊嘉 (著)=Wawrytko, Sandra A. (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.5
Date1992.07
Pages341 - 378
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note本文著者全名為 Wawrytko, Sandra A. 作者華珊嘉為聖地亞哥州立大學哲學系教授。
KeywordZen Buddhism=Zazen Buddhism=禪宗; 道家; 禪偈; 神秘主義; 禪詩
Abstract所有神秘主義傳統的詩人修道者早就知道,詩的形式適於傳達不可言詮的終極真實或境界。詩所表現的意義微妙性與起興性遠較散文為高。詩的無止境開放性所發揮的作用就如同禪畫一樣,能讓聽眾與原作者,尤其原藝術家,共享餘韻。這樣,藝術欣賞就轉化成為默思瞑想了。本文專就禪宗詩偈所扮演的重要角色而予以討論。簡論早期佛教聖典的詩偈要素之後,我將探討曾影響過中國佛教演進,而特以詩體表現哲學思想的中國本土傳統。然後,我將借用禪悟三層歷程所彰顯的詩偈,方便善巧的應用實例,來討論禪宗之中不同資源的創造性匯合。本文開頭一段,描述了轉迷開悟的詩作之道,專注於佛教聖典中的詩偈功能。這裡首要的一點是,要了解佛教開創以來,詩偈在佛典之中,為何又如何能具有傳達佛法的功能。本文續論道家傳統的詩道先驅。一般認為中國詩歌傳統有其兩大本源——即儒家所強調的詩經與楚辭及其道家哲學背景。後者又與佛教思想更接近,例如老子的道德經,劉義慶所著世說新語中的玄學思潮,以及潛具儒家韻味的陶潛詩等乃為明證。禪的悟道的三歷程,或可分視之為上古佛教袓師之道,空性禪,與祖師禪。此一歷程可在某些禪宗袓師的詩作之中看到痕跡,包括。包括慧能,百丈懷海,與香巖智閑。我將特就青原的著名悟道詩分析其三層的歷程。經過拙文的探討發現:禪的詩偈是源乎於印度佛教,經由中國古詩與道家傳統的中介與豐富化,而終於演進成為一種強而有力的佛法方便善巧。

The inherent suitability of the poetic form for communicating the ineffable has long been known to poet-practioners in all mystical traditions. Poetry offers possibilities of indirection and evocation far beyond those of any prose style. The open-endedness of a poem serves the same function as the blank space in a Ch'an painting, allowing the audience to resonate (yü-yün, Japanese yoin) with the work and, most importantly, with the artist. In this way, "Artistic appreciation is...transformed into meditation."

This paper discusses the pivotal role played by poetry,as it evolved from the Sanskrit gāthā found in Buddhist sūtras, within the Ch'an sect of Buddhism. After a brief review of the poetic component in early Buddhist literature, we will consider the indigenous Chinese tradition of poetically-expressed philosophy that influenced the evolution of sinitic Buddhism. The creative mergence of these diverse sources within Ch'an is then considered through examples of the upāyic application of poetry in terms o f a three-fold process of awakening.

The opening section describes the poetic path to enlightenment, focussing on the function of gāthās in the Buddhist literature. Of primary importance here is an understnading of why and how poetry could function as a vehicle of Dharma in the sūtras from the very inception of Buddhism.

The poetic precursors in the Taoist tradition are then considered. Two roots of the Chinese poetic tradition generally have been identified-the Shih Ching (Classic of Poetry) emphasized by the Confucian school and the Ch'u Tz'u (Elegies of Ch'u or Song of the South) displaying affinities with Taoist philosophy. The latter currents were best able to resonate with Buddhist thought, as exemplified in Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, the Neo-Taoist currents in Liu I-ch'ing's New Tales of the World (Shih-shuo Hsin-yü), and the transitional, Buddhist tinged lines of T'ao Ch'ien.

The Ch'an synthesis reflects a threefold process of enlightenment, sometimes characterized as the Way of the Ancient masters, The Ch'an of Voidness, and the Ch'an of the Patriarchs. This same process can be traced in certain poetic expressions of the Ch'an practitioners, including Hui-Neng, Pai-chang Huai-hai, and Hsiang-yen Chih-hsien. A more in-depth epistemological analysis of the threefold experience of awakening is presented in terms of the famous enlightenment poem of Ch'ing-yüan Wei-hsin. The ex- position aims to demonstrate that, building on Indian sources, and enriched by Chinese poetic and Taoist traditions, Ch'an poetics evolved into a powerful upāyic tool.
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1193
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.15



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